Construction Benefits of Being SmartGP0|#69b4a912-eafa-43d2-b6a4-8aed47f69245;L0|#069b4a912-eafa-43d2-b6a4-8aed47f69245|Security Technology;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652019-03-01T05:00:00ZGinger Schlueter <p>​Dubai is on a mission. It wants to become the world’s smartest city by 2021 and has more than 545 initiatives in the works to fundamentally change the way people experience the city.</p><p>The effort is part of Dubai’s Smart City strategy, which launched in 2014, according to Visit Dubai. </p><p>“Key strategic goals include: transforming more than 100 essential government services into smart services carried out primarily online; introducing autonomous vehicles and smart transportation services; providing free, high-speed Wi-Fi across the emirate; and developing a data-driven economy that authorities estimate will generate an additional AED 10.4 billion (U.S. $2.83 billion) in GDP by 2021,” a press release explained.</p><p>“The Smart Dubai Platform will be unlike any other smart city platform operating in the world today,” said Her Excellency Dr. Aisha Bin Bishr, director general of the Smart Dubai Office, which is rolling out the Smart City strategy.</p><p>And Dubai is not alone. Cities around the world want to provide residents and visitors with greater access and connections via technology as more people begin to migrate to urban areas.</p><p>The United Nations projects that 68 percent of the world’s population will live in urban areas by 2050, and that more than 60 percent of the land projected to become urban has yet to be developed. This creates an opportunity for the security industry to provide the safety and security segment smart cities need.</p><h4>Smart Cities 101</h4><p>There are varying definitions of a smart city, but they share many similarities. Smart cities are sustainable, both environmentally and economically; proactive in detecting threats; able to break down big data gathered from devices throughout the city into understandable, usable information; livable for people; and utilize connected components.</p><p>“The motive right now of smart cities is the ability to manage a city based upon the interconnectivity of traffic control, emergency systems, video infrastructure—in terms of tracking incidents and potential threats—and parking management and controls,” says Pierre Bourgeix, consulting manager at Boon Edam. </p><p>To make this possible, cities must invest in a robust infrastructure to support the technology they’re installing.</p><p>“Smart grids, together with fixed broadband infrastructure based on 5G and Fixed Wireless Access—essentially fiber optic performance in a wireless transport medium—are some key elements providing the underlying infrastructure to advance smart cities,” says Steve Surfaro, a physical and cybersecurity solutions expert and member of the ASIS International Security and Applied Sciences Ad Hoc Council.</p><p>In one of its smart city initiatives, Dubai is using artificial intelligence-driven robots to assist tourists by answering their questions, providing directions, and more. Dubai is also looking into creating an “autonomous police station” controlled by a mobile app to assist its police department.</p><p>“Some countries and cities—Dubai, Kuwait, India, Singapore, and China—are way ahead of the curve,” explains Jumbi Edulbehram, regional president Americas at Oncam Grandeye. “China especially has a ton of smart city technology, including a whole highway that can power cars as they are driving on top of it.”</p><p>The United States lags behind many nations when it comes to smart city development. However, this gives the United States a chance to look at successfully functioning smart cities and reproduce similar applications.</p><p>“The United States is starting to see how new technologies are being birthed with smart cities,” Bourgeix says. “We see the advancement of…lighting, infrastructure solutions, etc., so we already know what the U.S.’s future looks like and we’re preparing by installing wide area networks and 5G infrastructure.”</p><h4>Smart City Trends</h4><p>While cities adopt technology to improve transportation and efficiency, areas of smart city development offer the security industry the opportunity to play a vital role. And the industry is beginning to step up. </p><p>“The big camera players, for example, all started a smart cities division and hired—or are still hiring—smart city business development personnel to go out into the market,” Edulbehram says. “And security associations are starting smart city committees to help investigate all the intersections between safe and smart cities.”</p><p>Biometric technologies will also further enhance the smart cities of the future, implemented into access control applications and others.</p><p>“We are already starting to see currency as ‘you,’” Bourgeix says. “Eventually, you won’t need a [credit card] anymore…your face…your biometric authentication will be enough to make a purchase.”</p><p>The rapid growth of smart city concepts and the innovation of technologies to operate them present the security industry with opportunities.</p><p>“I am currently talking to a lighting company that has been selling lights with this communication hub and a processing bar for a few years,” Edulbehram says. “The company is looking for ways to provide value-added services on top of just selling lights. It wants to incorporate video cameras into the actual lights, along with other sensors—like gun-shot and weather detection.”</p><p>Smart cities will also look to the security industry to help secure the data collected and transmitted through all this interconnectivity.</p><p>One example of the serious ramifications of unprotected data occurred in 2017 in Dallas, Texas. Hackers used a rogue radio signal to set off tornado sirens around the city, which could have caused a panic. Dallas officials have since made changes to the system to prevent similar attacks in the future.</p><p>“Secured communication must happen, and we’re heading in that direction with secured identity, secured entry, and secured storage,” Bourgeix explains. “This is critical to the success of smart cities; we have these wonderful devices and they’re connected, but we must secure it. If not, they become our weakest link.”</p><p>However, most cities will consider addressing these challenges with tighter budgets than in the past. One way to secure funding, says Janet Fenner, chief marketing officer at ISS, is to incorporate security technologies for other uses.</p><p>For example, in 2016 Detroit installed high-definition security cameras at eight gas stations the city had partnered with and connected the video feeds to the Detroit Police Department, blending public and private interests into real-time crime fighting.</p><p>Two years later, the program expanded to more than 400 businesses feeding video directly into the police department’s Real-Time Crime Center where dedicated staff receive, monitor, and analyze the feeds.</p><p>Such initiatives simultaneously enhance public safety and help business owners and operators keep their facilities secure. They will become more prevalent in the future and are the best way to secure funding for new technology.</p><p>“Overall, law enforcement needs to start working more effectively and efficiently with others within the city,” says Fenner. “The more [the city as a whole] pools its resources together, the better protected it is.”​</p>

Construction Benefits of Being Smart Amenity of Necessity off Copper Crime Waves Recovery Century Security and CPTED: Designing for Critical Infrastructure Protection and Crime Prevention, Second Edition. by Design in Abu Dhabi Lessons Greening of Security Construct Better Security Lowers the Stakes Challenge of Making Safer Structures Buzz Over ZigBee Planning and Design: A Guide for Architects and Building Design Professionals

 You May Also Like... Century Security and CPTED: Designing for Critical Infrastructure Protection and Crime Prevention, Second Edition.<div class="body"> <p> <em> <span style="font-size:small;"> <span style="font-family:arial;">CRC Press. Available from ASIS, item #2078; 954 pages; $120 (ASIS member), $132 (nonmember). Also available as e-book.</span> </span> </em> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:small;"> <span style="font-family:arial;">As good as the first edition of 21st Century Security and CPTED was, this second edition surpasses it. Atlas, known in security circles as a consummate professional, has done an outstanding job in creating this second edition, which has twice as much material as the original edition. It also includes voluminous references and hundreds of outstanding clarifying photos in both color and black-and-white. Using humor and candid insight he incorporates all the concepts of CPTED, including design, construction, security countermeasures, and risk management strategies, and merges them into a highly informative reference manual for security practitioners at every level.</span> </span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:small;"> <span style="font-family:arial;">There is a logical flow to the book. It lays a solid foundation by discussing architecture and its intent, as well as environmental crime control theories and premises liability. There is something here for everyone as it also discusses terrorism and critical infrastructure from differing perspectives. Several chapters on problem solving provide guidance on conducting threat, risk, and vulnerability assessments.</span> </span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:small;"> <span style="font-family:arial;">Throughout, Atlas provides a roadmap for merging security and CPTED into management principles and practices in a wide variety of facility settings, including healthcare facilities, critical infrastructure, ATMs, office buildings, parking lots and structures, and parks and green spaces. The latter portion of the book is reserved for concepts including lighting, LEED and GREEN certification, workplace violence, signage, data capture and analysis, and conducting CPTED surveys.</span> </span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:small;"> <span style="font-family:arial;">Atlas has created the definitive book on CPTED and security. Despite the magnitude and complexity of the science and art of security management, he has done an outstanding job of merging these and other disciplines and concepts together into a cogent display of information that the reader should be able to apply in a wide variety of locations and situations. If you are only going to buy one book this year, it is strongly suggested you purchase this one. </span> </span> </p> <hr /> <p> <span style="color:#800000;"> <strong> <span style="font-size:small;"> <span style="font-family:arial;">Reviewer:</span> </span> </strong> </span> <span style="font-size:small;"> <span style="font-family:arial;"> Glen Kitteringham, CPP, has worked in the security industry since 1990. He holds a master’s degree in security and crime risk management. He is president of Kitteringham Security Group Inc., which consults with companies around the globe. </span> </span> </p> </div>GP0|#28ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997;L0|#028ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997|Strategic Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465 Color Theory<p><strong>1. Perception. </strong>Color theory isn’t an exact science, but we do know a few things about how colors change the way people are perceived. Color changes how people see others and how people see themselves. In American culture, the darker the color, the more authoritative a person appears. It is unsurprising then that the colors most often associated with security and law enforcement uniforms are blue, gray, and black.</p><p><strong>2. Emotion.</strong> Psychological tests have found that individuals associate colors with specific moods. For example, people generally associate red with excitement and stimulation, which explains why red is often used for flashing emergency vehicle lights but not for uniforms. According to a study done at the University of Georgia, the color blue subconsciously evokes feelings of comfort and security in most people, making it a good choice for people in a position of authority. Tests also have found that individuals associate the color black with power and strength. But black can also elicit anger, hostility, dominance, and aggression. A dark security uniform may subconsciously encourage citizens to see officers as aggressive or corrupt. The color gray is an unemotional color. It is detached, neutral, impartial, and indecisive. From a color psychology perspective, gray is the color of compromise—being neither black nor white. Gray conforms. For a security officer uniform, gray is conventional, dependable, and practical. </p><p><strong>3. Authority. </strong>When combined with a uniform, color can establish a sense of authority. In 1829, the London Metropolitan Police developed the first standard police apparel. These first police officers were issued a dark blue, paramilitary-style uniform. The color blue was chosen to distinguish the police from the British military officers who wore red and white uniforms at the time. The first official police force in the United States was established in the city of New York in 1845. Based on the London police, the New York City Police Department adopted the dark blue uniform in 1853. Cities such as Boston, Buffalo, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, and Philadelphia quickly followed by establishing police departments based on the London model, including the adoption of the dark blue, paramilitary-style uniform. Most police uniforms in the United States continue to have a paramilitary appearance and are generally a dark color. However, dark colors are preferred not only for the emotions they convey, but because they keep the officer from being easily spotted by lawbreakers, especially at night.</p><p><em>Dan Mendelson is President of Unitex Direct. He serves on the ASIS Security Services Council.​​</em><br></p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465 Lessons<p>On April 2, 2012, One Goh, a former student at Oikos University, in Oakland, California, opened fire on the campus, killing seven people and wounding three others. That incident happened nearly five years to the day after the April 16, 2007, mass shooting at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), in Blacksburg, Virginia. It was a sad reminder that, though rare, shootings are a threat to universities large and small, and school authorities must be prepared to handle them.</p><p>In the Virginia Tech tragedy, a current student first shot two students in a dormitory; a few hours later, he entered an academic building and opened fire in several classrooms before turning the gun on himself. Thirty-three people were killed in the massacre, including the gunman, Seung-Hui Cho. The Virginia Tech community has been through much since that day. It has also attempted to learn important lessons to limit the chances of a similar tragedy in the future. Other campuses have taken note. Ahead is a look at some of the long-term lessons and evolving best practices for communications, sheltering in place, and threat assessment teams.</p><p><strong><span style="font-size:medium;">Communications</span></strong></p><p>A key factor in the Virginia Tech shooting was that the gunman first murdered two students in the dorms in the morning. The university took more than an hour after that first incident to warn students that there had been a shooting on campus. The school was ultimately judged by the U.S. Department of Education (DOE) to have violated a provision in the applicable law, the Clery Act, which calls for “timely warnings” when reportable crimes occur on campus. Some examples of reportable Clery Act crimes are robbery, murder, and assault.</p><p>Virginia Tech officials disagreed with that judgment. According to Mark Owczarski, Virginia Tech’s director of news and information, while there was no clear definition of what constituted a “timely” warning at the time, precedent and DOE guidelines had those warnings coming out within 48 hours of the incident. An hour seemed reasonable in that context. Moreover, the Virginia Tech warnings were not more immediate because universities were expected to first determine the facts and then put as much information into the warning as possible, asserted Virginia Tech in its defense.</p><p>The reason for the delay was not accepted initially, and the school was fined $55,000. But in March 2012, the school got some vindication when the DOE’s chief administrative judge overturned the DOE fine. However, also in March, a civil trial jury awarded $4 million to two families of Virginia Tech victims who accused the school of negligence.</p><p>The fuzziness around the definition of what would be considered “timely” with regard to a warning prompted a legislative change in 2008, when the Clery Act was amended to include an additional responsibility for a more instantaneous emergency notification whenever a school has reason to believe that there is any imminent threat to the health and safety of students on campus. Situations meriting a notification might include chemical spills or even concerns about an infectious disease, in addition to crimes and active shooters.</p><p>Emergency notifications must be issued immediately even if all of the facts of the case are not yet gathered. The objective is to let people in and around the campus know that they may be in danger. “Immediate” is defined as meaning “as soon as law enforcement officers can confirm the threat,” says Owczarski.</p><p>The notification should be made by the police department as soon as possible after it responds to a call and confirms that there is a potentially threatening situation. When both an emergency notification and a timely warning would apply (Clery-reportable crimes, for example), the DOE has stated that a redundant timely warning is not necessary in addition to the emergency notification.</p><p>Conversely, when emergency notifications are not needed, the subsequent “timely warning” is still required under the law and should be issued after the school or police gather basic information. Schools have up to 48 hours to do that, but Owczarski says few, if any, institutions would wait that long today. </p><p>“The landscape has changed,” says Owczarski. “[I]n light of what happened five years ago, colleges and universities are far more likely to communicate first, think and respond second.”</p><p>Virginia Tech’s VT Alert system has about 10 mechanisms for disseminating information (more on these ahead). Each has its application. For example, outdoor sirens might be used for tornado warnings, but they would not likely be used in a timely-warning situation.</p><p>Communication is the most important aspect of security, says Paul Timm, PSP, president of RETA Security. Virginia Tech did have mass notification capabilities when the 2007 tragedy occurred, and it did use such mechanisms as e-mail to send out information about the shootings, but technology has made instant mass communications far easier since then.</p><p>For example, many notification systems in effect before the shooting did not use text messages. That was because it was complicated. “[Y]ou had to buy Sprint’s [service] or Verizon, or what have you, and you then had to carry their particular device,” explains Bob Lang, CPP, assistant vice president of safety and security at Kennesaw State University in Georgia.</p><p>A 2008 report called <em>The Ripple Effect of Virginia Tech</em> from the Midwestern Higher Education Compact found that nearly three-quarters of respondents whose schools did not previously possess the ability to send notification via text had since implemented a system capable of doing that or planned on implementing such a system.</p><p>Helping to facilitate this change is the fact that today’s notification systems can generally be used with all carriers, and most every student has a smartphone. Thus, it’s not just that mass notification systems are more widespread, says Timm, it’s that they are easier to implement and, therefore, end up being more useful.</p><p>Schools are also getting more students to sign up for notifications. That’s because “schools are speaking to other schools, and we’re learning from each other,” says Timm. “So we’re not just going to leave it up to the student to walk in and sign up. We’re saying ‘here, if you’re going to register for classes, the screen that you get before you’re allowed to register is the sign-up for mass notification.”</p><p>It is best practice to have numerous ways to reach members of the campus with pertinent information. In the International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators (IACLEA) blueprint for safer campuses, “one of the things that we focused on was to have redundant systems so that if cell phones didn’t work because they were jammed, you had other ways of getting the word out to the campus if there was an imminent danger,” says Christopher G. Blake, IACLEA’s associate director and campus preparedness project director.</p><p>Virginia Tech’s current alert system includes text messaging, e-mail, message boards, sirens, and desktop alerts, among other mechanisms. “The bottom line to a lot of this is coming up with a layered approach to notifications,” says Lang.<br> Virginia Tech added digital message boards in classrooms and laboratories to its system after the 2007 tragedy. “Those are immediate; they literally will send a message within a second of deployment. Text messaging can take up to 20 minutes depending on cell phone service, the number of people, the number of subscribers, says Owczarski.</p><p>Owczarski says the university prioritized which classrooms would have the signs first, and the installation process is ongoing as opportunity and funding becomes available. For example, large lecture halls and the most widely used spaces received the signs initially. There are about 700 signs currently. University policy states that the boards must be included in new construction projects and renovations.</p><p>The notification process is ever-developing based upon technology improvements. For example, Virginia Tech has also added Twitter and Facebook to its cadre of notification media.</p><p>Content and context. Another issue universities have to wrangle with is exactly what the content of the message will be for any given situation.</p><p>Owczarski says that in these situations it is important to keep information updated, “because of the world in which we live in; people tweet, people Facebook, rumors go rampant.” He says that if 30 minutes goes by with no news, he will repeat what has been said or confirm that police are continuing to investigate.</p><p>For example, in December 2011, a campus police officer was shot on the Virginia Tech campus following a routine traffic stop. The police sent out the initial emergency notification when the shooting was confirmed and then quickly updated it when they knew the shooter had been spotted in a parking lot, says Owczarski. He says he then took over the communications to flesh out the warnings and information being delivered to the community. The emergency response plan was implemented, and the school was in a state of emergency response until police could confirm that the gunman was no longer a threat to the community.</p><p>Every situation will require different directives. In a potential or actual active-shooter situation, for example, the message might be to shelter in place, which simply means not to leave the building you are in. That was the case after the December shooting, though some media called it a “lockdown.”</p><p>Owczarski says that “lockdown” is a word that his school does not use, because it’s probably impossible to accomplish on a campus the size of a small municipality.</p><p>By contrast, it is feasible to advise anyone on campus to shelter in place, though that has its limitations as well. “It is not enforceable, and it might even be counterproductive if the people are in the same building as the shooter when they receive the warning,” says Owczarski.</p><p>Communicating is challenging when you have maybe a minute or two to make a decision about what to say, he says. And part of the challenge is that things are reported over Twitter and rumors and facts are often confused in the heat of a moment. “Yet what litigation and lawsuits will often say is you’re better off saying something, anything, and then reacting second. And that’s one of the great challenges that all of higher education in all municipalities face,” he says.</p><p>Virginia Tech has developed a Web portal with emergency messages for authorized individuals to send. The portal walks the user through a series of steps. The person would first put in information such as which campus the message is for and the delivery mechanisms to use (in an emergency, the default is to use them all).</p><p>There are about 30 templates of scenarios to provide a starting point for the notification. The template provides language appropriate to each type of incident and delivery mechanism; for example, e-mails might be longer and more conversational than text messages. The messages go out simultaneously. The language for the templates has been refined, and new templates have been created as drills and real-life emergencies have yielded lessons.<br><strong><span style="font-size:medium;"><br> Threat Assessment Teams</span></strong></p><p>Virginia Tech shooter Cho had behavioral issues that professors and mental health professionals knew about. After the fact, there were discussions about whether he should have been monitored more closely or removed from campus before the tragedy. It is impossible to know whether anything might have prevented that situation, but schools are trying to do what they can to focus on potentially risky situations—or people in need of assistance on or outside of their campuses—and to spot red flags that might signal trouble ahead.</p><p>The Virginia Tech incident led to a state law that requires colleges to have threat assessment teams for just that purpose. When that law came about, Virginia Tech was already putting together its behavioral threat assessment program.</p><p>Dewey Cornell, clinical psychologist and professor of education at the Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, thinks colleges traditionally have spent more resources on dealing with a tragedy than preventing it, so he sees the rise of threat assessment teams as a positive change. “I really think more emphasis should be given to prevention than just to crisis response,” he says.</p><p>Virginia Tech has spent a lot of time on refining its behavioral threat assessment team. The team consists of various individuals from different departments and disciplines.</p><p>Gene Deisinger joined Virginia Tech as threat management director in 2009. He says the school threat management team evaluates a few hundred cases a year, most of which are closed if no threat is perceived.</p><p>There are numerous ways a case can be opened, including reports from an individual on campus. When a case is reported, the team must examine the risks and the behavior in the context of whatever the individual is going through. The team will talk to the individual directly to assess and address any problems. The team also gathers information from various resources. One of the first orders of business is to determine whether the person is already being helped by other counseling or campus services. If that help is deemed to be adequate or the team determines that the person poses no threat, the case is closed.</p><p>Cornell points out that revisions to Virginia law and clarifications by the DOE have been made to facilitate information sharing with law enforcement and other groups, such as those in the medical professions. For example, a DOE clarification of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) states that school officials are not prohibited from sharing information obtained through school officials’ observation and personal knowledge, such as threatening remarks.</p><p>That is not considered part of student educational records, which makes it easier for the information to be shared.</p><p>The threat assessment team is separate from the CARE Team, which is a student aid team that was in existence prior to the 2007 shootings. The CARE Team will focus on student assistance issues, but some cases may go back and forth between CARE and threat assessment. For example, a financial-aid issue might start with CARE and then go to threat assessment if the student’s behavior becomes inflammatory. But both teams will not be working on the same case at once.</p><p>The threat assessment team is charged with identifying dangerous behaviors not just from students or faculty members but anyone who might pose a danger.</p><p>The threat assessment team mostly acts after concerns are reported, but Virginia Tech also introduced a proactive threat assessment element to the admissions process. During admissions, various background questions are asked in the application, and behavior is assessed during interaction with admissions officers.</p><p>If it is determined that an applicant has a history of violent offenses or other potentially disruptive behavior, for example, he or she would be referred to the threat assessment team. The team will then assess whether it’s possible to have a support plan to help that person be successful at the school. If the team doesn’t believe that’s possible, the applicant will not be permitted to attend the school. But, says Deisinger, “We recommend denial of very few applications.”</p><p><strong>Red flags.</strong></p><p>The school also tries to provide some guidance to the campus community with regard to what red flags they should look for. These are listed on Virginia Tech’s Web site, but Deisinger emphasizes that there is no absolutely reliable list of behaviors, and all behavior must be taken in context. Just because a person was violent in the past doesn’t mean they will be in the future. Similarly, a person with no violent past might still pose a risk.</p><p>Deisinger says that simplistic ways of predicting who is going to be violent have not worked, and he doesn’t anticipate that changing. He adds that though most of the referrals to his team do not end up requiring long-term monitoring, they’re still helpful.</p><p>“One side of the equation is, is the subject of concern dangerous or significantly disruptive? Even if the answer is no, if they’re perceived that way, there’s still an issue, because others will continue to respond to them based on the perception. And so, for many of the cases, we’re not actively working the subject of concern so much as we are the persons who shared the concern,” Deisinger says. The objective is “to share to the extent it’s lawful and appropriate to do so, the information that would help mitigate their concerns.”</p><p>Deisinger adds that it’s the nature of the beast of dealing with potentially violent and disruptive behavior that it’s unlikely that any individual in the community would be in a position to know the whole story, “so we set up a process that we know will [yield] false positives, because that enables us to look at potential linkages across the institution.”</p><p>Awareness training. Schools also are seeking ways to make students comfortable with reporting any issues or concerns. At the University of Virginia, Cornell says, they hold a series of meetings with students to discuss such issues. The school also developed a Web site with videos that depict different kinds of situations where people might want to seek help.</p><p>Additionally, many universities have special Web sites or systems set up to receive information or concerns. Deisinger stresses how important it is to do community outreach, because the campus population is always changing. “The things we did for outreach or awareness last year do not mean that this year the community knows what resources are available to assist with concerns,” he says, adding “So that has to be a continual process.”<br><strong><span style="font-size:medium;"><br>Response Coordination</span></strong></p><p>Another key issue is how various authorities will work together in the event of a major incident where they all respond to the scene. Many schools had good relationships with local law enforcement prior to the Virginia Tech tragedy, but even with good relations, coordinating activity on the scene can be challenging.</p><p>The National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) lay out protocols for such situations. In recent years, more schools are adopting the NIMS and ICS approaches even when they are not required to follow them.</p><p>The basic ICS course is actually tailored for administrators in higher education, says Timm. “Now, not enough of them are taking advantage of that, but…we’re on a crusade to help them at least be aware and then get on board,” he says. He adds that it helps them become more familiar with first responders and gets everyone speaking the “same language.”</p><p>IACLEA’s Blake stresses the importance of mutual-aid agreements and working with local law enforcement. “You don’t want to be introducing yourself to these folks at the scene [of an incident]; you want to have working relationships with them in advance.”</p><p>Five years after the 2007 shooting, Virginia Tech received high marks for its reaction to the police officer shooting, says Blake. “They were really applauded by the media and others about what a fantastic job they did of getting the word out, almost immediately, to the community, and they had regular updates and so forth.”</p><p>That proficiency was the result of lessons learned the hard way after the 2007 tragedy. But at least they have been learned. “Virginia Tech sadly has a degree of experience that hopefully will serve us in the future for when those instances will happen again,” says Owczarski, adding, “And if we can help others prepare better for the instances that have yet to occur, [we are] glad to do that.”</p><p> </p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465