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https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Shooing-off-Copper-Crime-Waves.aspxShooing off Copper Crime WavesGP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652018-11-01T04:00:00Zhttps://adminsm.asisonline.org/pages/holly-gilbert-stowell.aspx, Holly Gilbert Stowell<p>​Copper theft can be dangerous—even deadly. The metal is attractive for thieves, who often find the cover of night and the remoteness of a construction or utilities site the perfect scene for their crimes.  </p><p>The value of copper is driven by the classic supply-and-demand scenario—the world's copper mining industry can't produce enough to keep up with the demand, says Ross Johnson, CPP, senior manager, security and contingency planning at Capital Power in Alberta, Canada.</p><p>"Since you cannot mine copper fast enough to keep up with the demand, the shortfall is made up from the recycling industry, and that's what drives up the value of copper," he notes. "Generally, when the price per pound on the scrap market goes up, what happens is the theft goes up as well."  </p><p>In Canada, where there is little regulation in the recycling industry, thieves can more easily trade stolen materials for cash. "There's always a level of background theft around construction, especially in the electricity sector because there's so much copper that's used," Johnson explains. </p><p>There have been at least 15 deaths in the last five years related to metal theft in Canada, according to data from the Canadian Electricity Association. Thieves are often either unaware or unconcerned about the high-powered voltage running through copper and can be badly burned, or worse. </p><p>"Copper is used to ground electrical equipment," Johnson explains. "When people break into our facilities to steal copper, it renders the equipment unsafe because it isn't grounded anymore, and it could kill the thieves or utility workers that are going in to work on it."</p><p>Even when the bad actors manage to escape unscathed, there is a ripple effect in the surrounding community. For example, in October 2013 in Surrey, British Columbia, thieves cut through a utility pole in the province and waited for the BC Hydro and Power authority to respond by shutting off the power. </p><p>Once the power was cut off, the thieves removed five meters of braided copper wire. A nearby clinic was left without power for two days, affecting its ability to treat more than 200 patients. ​</p><h4>PEPS Alberta</h4><p>There has been a concerted effort by the sectors most affected by copper and other metal theft to fight back. </p><p>One such coalition is Provincial Electricity Physical Security (PEPS) Alberta, a working group made up of stakeholders from the electricity, metal, and telecommunications industries. </p><p>PEPS was formed about a decade ago to fight industrial crime in rural areas through legislative and educational efforts. The group works alongside the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and other law enforcement entities to reduce and prevent crime. </p><p><strong>Scrap metal theft.</strong> PEPS is working with the recycling industry and the provincial government to find ways to reduce metal theft. These methods include developing training material for the construction industry on safeguarding assets and for law enforcement to help identify stolen material, sharing of information related to incidents to help police resolve crime, and studying potential legislation to make it more difficult to sell stolen material.   </p><p>"When thieves steal metal from us, they can take it to a recycler, and then the recycler buys it—that's where the trail goes cold," Johnson notes. "And the police can't investigate it because they need to be able to identify who sold that material to the recycler."</p><p>"We've been working with Alberta Justice, and a senior-level official and her staff," Johnson says. "The Alberta Justice officials we work with are actually members of PEPS, too, so they attend the meetings and communicate regularly with members." </p><p><strong>Calgary bylaw. </strong>There is a precedent for such regulat­ion in the Alberta recycling industry. Calgary, a city within the Province of Alberta, passed a bylaw making it more difficult for thieves to trade in scrap metal without being traced. </p><p>"The Calgary Police Service initiated an investigative strategy named Operation Metallica, and it involved a team of police officers who focused on metal theft using the Calgary bylaw," Johnson notes. </p><p>One recycler he spoke to in the city said that she noticed an improvement in customers when the bylaw was passed; crooks were no longer coming to trade in stolen scrap metal. </p><p>"They were so successful in stomping out metal theft in Calgary that after a two-year period, Operation Metallica was terminated because the officers had accomplished their objectives," Johnson adds. "Calgary was a great example that this could work."​</p><h4>Worksites​</h4><p>While metal and other valuable materials make substations and other utilities sites attractive to thieves, Johnson says sites are weakest during the construction phase. </p><p>"It's usually because fences aren't permanent—if there are any—and there are often excavations and other things exposing wire and conduit," he adds. </p><p>As the potential for theft goes up, so does the potential for danger, Johnson says, explaining that stealing copper is literally playing with fire. </p><p>"Most people's experience with electricity is the wall outlets in your home in the wall where you get 115 volts," he says. "When you're dealing with electricity at the transmission and distribution levels, it is phen­omenally dangerous."</p><p><strong>Safety concerns. </strong>Johnson used to work as security director at EPCOR Utilities Inc., formerly the Edmonton Power Corporation, a distribution and transmission company. "We had a construction arm as well that did a lot of work, and we were constantly getting hit by copper thieves," he says. </p><p>On one occasion, a thief trespassed on one of EPCOR's properties to steal copper. He entered an area of the substation that was fenced off from the rest of the substation and touched a piece of equipment.  </p><p>The resulting arc flash flowed around him—not through him—and his clothing from the waist up caught fire. The substation engineers later said that there were about 7,000 amps of electricity in that plasma cloud (one-tenth of an amp can kill a person), and it would have been hotter than the surface of the sun.  </p><p>EPCOR officials were greatly concerned after the incident about safety—not just of their workers, but of any potential bad actors who could be killed or injured. An executive of the company asked if an extra layer of fencing around all substations in the city would help, but Johnson said that would merely push the security concerns out further—not eliminate them. </p><p><strong>Construction guideline.</strong> "After a copper theft at a construction site or substation, the workers would tell us that they weren't concerned with the value of the copper stolen—they were only worried that someone would get hurt," Johnson says. </p><p>In one incident, someone used a pair of pruning shears to cut an energized 14.4-kilovolt line at a construction site. </p><p>"The damaged shears were found the next morning, and the worried electrical workers searched the area to see if the would-be thief was dead or injured," Johnson says. Not finding him, they even called local hospitals to see if they had a recent admission with severe burns.  </p><p>With more than three years of experience as a safety and security supervisor in Houston's offshore oil industry, Johnson says he understood that metal theft was not primarily a security concern, but a safety issue that would best be addressed through safety management planning.</p><p>Few construction workers have security plans, but they all have safe work plans. The plan was simple: no copper left above ground after they cease work at the end of the day, and nothing—no scrap, no bulk wire, etc.—left in containers or anywhere else on site overnight. It was all removed and returned to the service center each evening. This new approach to combating metal theft paid immediate dividends—metal theft from construction sites almost disappeared.</p><p>The lessons learned at EPCOR eventually became part of a document from PEPS, the Construction Security Practices Guideline, which iterates that taking simple precautions throughout and at the end of the work day can help prevent crime and increase worker safety.</p><p>And one of the best ways to deter thieves mentioned in the guide? Don't use copper at all. </p><p>"One of the most effective crime-reducing measures is to not use attractive metals in the first place," according to the guideline. "Avoid using solid copper grounding straps and components wherever possible: use copper-clad steel (such as Copperweld) instead, because it has no commercial value." </p><p>Copperweld works similarly to copper, though it must be installed differently and doesn't have the same resistance as copper. </p><p>"It's steel or zinc coated with copper and it has no commercial value. You can take it to a recycler and they just don't want it," Johnson explains. "We tell people, 'If you have copper stolen, do not replace it with copper—because then they'll just come back and steal the replacement stuff, and you've become an automated teller machine,'" he says. </p><p><strong>Wind farms. </strong>As a wave of new construction is being planned for wind farms in Alberta, PEPS is aiming to introduce physical security measures to help reduce crime.</p><p>Pick any point in central Alberta, and there is a good chance a thick seam of coal lies deep beneath the ground. Traditionally, a majority of the province's energy was generated by coal plants. But Canada, a member of the Paris Agreement on climate change, is making strides as a nation to be less dependent on nonrenewable energy sources. </p><p>The New Democratic Party, which won the election in 2015, launched a billion dollar initiative last year to have renewable power make up 30 percent of the province's energy demands by 2030. With an aggressive timeline of constructing 5,000 megawatts of wind and solar farms, the government began taking bids from the private sector. </p><p>Johnson's company, Capital Power, had one of the first winning bids. </p><p>"There are all these wind farms being built in southern Alberta—and we do not want to feed crime," he says. </p><p>PEPS Alberta is working on several physical security measures that can be employed at the wind farms that will help deter and detect bad actors who, as previously discussed, tend to be attracted to construction sites. </p><p>Thankfully, Johnson says there are several simple ways that the private companies constructing the wind and solar farms can cut down on crime, as noted in the Construction Safety Guideline. One tool of choice for thieves is a disc grinder, which can cut through metal locks. </p><p>However, Johnson says heavy-duty locks that are immune to the disc grinder are available. Johnson is also working with Capital Power employee Ian Sustrik to create a small Internet of Things sensor that would be able to pick up any vibrations caused by a disc grinder being operated at a wind turbine—a thief has already tried his hand at cutting through one, Johnson says.</p><p>"The sensor sits on the inside of the door, and it's tuned for the vibration that you would get from a disc grinder," he notes. "If the sensor picks up that vibration, it sends a signal out and informs security."  </p><p>The solution is low-cost due to the way the sensor communicates back to the security operations center. Rather than using cellular communication, which would require a more intricate network to be built, the sensor passes on the message to the sensor closest to it, then that sensor sends it to its neighbor, and so on—like a game of telephone. </p><p>"The message is passed down until it's got the one that has the cellular system on it, and that's the sensor that sends it to security," Johnson says. </p><p>As Capital Power works to develop similar security solutions, the company will disseminate them with the help of PEPS Alberta so other companies can take advantage. </p><p>"What we're doing here at Capital Power is trying to solve problems, and then sharing the solutions as widely as we can," Johnson says. "Ian will create sensors and then send out the instructions on how to build them, for whoever is interested."  ​</p><h4>Awareness</h4><p>While PEPS Alberta is working with private sector and government officials to reduce crime, it is also focused on one of its primary audiences it says can help prevent theft—the public.</p><p>As part of this effort, Dan Blacklock, a former communications advisor to energy company AltaLink and former public relations lead for PEPS Alberta, says the group has developed several materials targeted at rural communities where crime is highest. </p><p>"These thieves come from rural communities, so it's about inspiring those communities to take action and work with local law enforcement, or to report suspicious activity that they see in their communities at rural substations," Blacklock says. "That's our number one lead to arrests, information that's brought to [Canada] Crime Stoppers and law enforcement from these rural communities of seeing suspicious activity knowing someone who has done something."</p><p><strong>Ad campaign. </strong>PEPS Alberta plans to launch a public awareness campaign soon that includes a series of advertisements with statistics about the number of people affected by metal theft, and case study examples of how the crime impacts the community. </p><p>Each ad contains the tagline, "When equipment theft happens, we all get left in the dark," along with a number to call to report suspicious activity. </p><p>Besides warnings about the danger of trying one's hand at metal theft, the ads also describe the increased physical security measures and law enforcement activity at substations to further deter thieves. </p><p>"Part of this awareness campaign is spreading the message that substations aren't easy targets, and that industries, law enforcement, and the government have come together to prevent it," Blacklock says.</p><p>The RCMP provided PEPS with a map of hotspot communities that have experienced the most substation crime in the past five years, and the ads are running in local newspapers in those communities. Facebook ads were also purchased to target specific communities, and posters will be placed in recreational centers and hockey arenas. </p><p>"Information and education around the impacts of crimes like this, it's really a preemptive crime prevention tool," Blacklock says of the campaign. "So, it shouldn't be overlooked for its impact." </p><p>Construction materials guide. While the ad campaign primarily targets the public, PEPS Alberta has also come up with a guide for law enforcement to help them better identify types of metal and materials stolen from construction sites. </p><p>Johnson recalls at an ASIS Seminar and Exhibits in Houston, members from Texas had produced similar materials for law enforcement. </p><p>"At an ASIS Houston lunch, there was a guy there saying a state trooper didn't know what oil field equipment looked like," he says. "Consequently, when they pulled over a pickup truck that had a bed full of stolen oilfield equipment, they didn't recognize it immediately as stolen—they just thought it was scrap." </p><p>PEPS solicited photographs and descriptions of items most stolen from the different sectors, resulting in the Critical Infrastructure Stolen Materials Recognition Guide, which acts as a look-book for law enforcement should they come across suspicious looking goods.</p><p>"It doesn't cost anything to share," Johnson says. "I can create a PDF document on my computer and I can send it out to the world, and it doesn't cost anything." </p><p><strong>Outlook. </strong>PEPS Alberta is continuing to work with its partners in critical infrastructure, law enforcement, the recycling industry, and the provincial and federal governments to find ways to reduce crime, increase reliability, and keep communities safe. </p><p>In the meantime, PEPS believes that through its Construction Safety Guideline, the advertising campaign targeted at the public, and other awareness materials, crime can be reduced or even eliminated at construction and substation sites throughout the province. </p><p>"Someone can look at those crimes and think, 'It's just an industrial crime and there aren't any victims,'" Blacklock says. "But when you actually take a step back, you can see how serious and impactful those crimes are—people's lives are at risk."</p><p>Johnson reiterates that by stopping crime at a rural substation or a remote construction site, the ripple effects that devastate communities can be eliminated.  </p><p>"The aim here is to stop people from stealing our stuff because it brings in thieves. If thieves are successful, they'll come back. If they come back, they're stealing not only our stuff, but they're stealing from the local farmers, the local communities," he says. "And that's bad for everybody."  </p><p><br></p><h4>Sidebar: Metal Theft Impacts Communities</h4><p>Copper isn't the only type of metal that thieves are after, says Ross Johnson, CPP, senior manager, security and contingency planning at Capital Power.  </p><p>Any type of nonferrous metal—not containing iron—is potentially valuable to crim-­inals, including lead, zinc, brass, and aluminum. For example, cell phone tower batteries are often targeted for the lead they contain.</p><p>And the value the criminals get for the stolen material versus the cost to replace and repair the damage is virtually nothing. "You have a $400 battery that is stolen and destroyed for $3 worth of lead," he notes. </p><p>Brass theft has also been a major problem in Alberta and has had a devastating effect on the history of local communities. Not only do thieves steal brass urns from cemeteries—in some cases, brass plaques memorializing war veterans have been destroyed. </p><p>"Thieves are removing the brass plaques and destroying them, and then taking them in for the brass metal value," Johnson says. "The problem with that is that nobody knows what the plaque said, unless you have a photograph of it." </p><p>In 2018, an Edmonton man was arrested for stealing 18 memorial plaques, receiving $525 for the scrap metal, reported Radio Canada International. </p><p>"Literally the history of small towns is disappearing, especially around war memorials," Johnson says. "To me, that's a compelling reason to try to stop this."​</p><h4>What is PEPS Alberta?</h4><p>PEPS (Provincial Electricity Physical Security) Alberta is a team of men and women from the electricity, oil and gas, telecommunications, energy pipelines, and water industries; the National Energy Security Professionals (NESP) group; trade associations; recyclers; law enforcement; the metal forging industry; the National Energy Board; and governments at the Canadian federal, provincial, and municipal levels. </p><p>The PEPS coalition promotes public safety, the resilience of critical infrastructure, and crime prevention.​</p>

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https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/The-Dirty-Secret-of-Drug-Diversion.aspxThe Dirty Secret of Drug Diversion<p>​Controlled substances were going missing at Hennepin County Medical Center (HCMC), and the hospital’s security investigator, William Leon, was determined to get to the bottom of it. So, at 11 p.m. on a Friday, Leon settled in for a night of observation at the Level I trauma center in Minneapolis, Minnesota. He kept a trained eye on one registered nurse who was suspected of stealing hydromorphone, an opioid pain medication, for her personal use.</p><p>HCMC has cameras set up in the medication room to monitor controlled substances, and Leon watched as the nurse began gathering prescribed medication for a patient in the emergency department. The process, called wasting, requires the healthcare worker to take a fresh vial or syringe full of medication and then dispose of the excess, leaving only the correct dosage—all with a witness present. Leon observed the nurse dispense a syringe of hydromorphone from the medicine cabinet, and, while a fellow nurse was signing off on the withdrawal, she placed the syringe in her pocket and pulled out an identical syringe, which Leon later learned contained saline. The nurse held up the saline syringe and wasted the required amount, tricking her fellow nurse, and left the room.</p><p>At this point, Leon knew exactly what was going on, and watched with increasing alarm as the nurse headed to a patient’s room in the orthopedic area of the hospital. “In that area, I knew immediately, this patient could have a broken bone—they were in intense pain and requiring this medication,” Leon says. “I see a lot of doctors standing around and I’m thinking ‘uh oh, this patient is going to get saline.’”</p><p>Leon raced to the room and saw that the doctors had given the patient the saline the nurse had brought up. “The patient was still screaming in pain and the doctor was frantically asking the nurse, ‘Are you sure you got the right dosage? Are you sure it was hydromorphone?’ and she was insisting she had,” Leon says. He called the doctor and the nurse into the hall and explained that the patient had just gotten saline and still needed the proper pain medication because the nurse had diverted the hydromorphone in the medication room. The doctor went to properly treat the patient and Leon called the nurse manager and the local sheriff’s detective in to begin an official investigation into the nurse’s actions.</p><p>Drug diversion in the United States is a nebulous problem that is widespread but rarely discussed, experts say. Whether in manufacturing plants, retail pharmacies, hospitals, or long-term care facilities, healthcare workers are stealing drugs—typically for their own personal use—and putting themselves, patients, and coworkers at risk. </p><p>“I hate to tell you, but if you have controlled substances and dispense narcotics, you’ve got diversion going on,” says Cherie Mitchell, president of drug diversion software company HelioMetrics. “It’s just a question of whether you know it or not.”</p><p>The scope and frequency of drug diversion is almost impossible to grasp, due in large part to how diversion cases are addressed. A facility that identifies a diversion problem might bring in any combination of players, from private investigators and local law enforcement to state accreditation boards or the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). There is no overarching agency or organization that records every instance of drug diversion in the United States.</p><p>Controlled substance management is dictated by a number of laws, including the U.S. Controlled Substances Act of 1971, which classifies substances based on how they are used and the potential for abuse. It also dictates how the substances are dispensed, and a facility may be fined if it does not comply. </p><p>The closest estimates of drug diversion rates come from people or organizations who dig up the numbers themselves. The Associated Press used government-obtained data in its investigations on drug diversion at U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers. Reported incidents of diversion at about 1,200 VA facilities jumped from 272 in 2009 to 2,926 in 2015, the data revealed, and the VA inspector general has opened more than 100 criminal investigations since last October. John Burke, president of the International Health Facility Diversion Association, extrapolated data he obtained from facilities in Ohio to estimate the presence of 37,000 diverters in healthcare facilities across the country each year. </p><p>Mitchell points out that any statistic derived from officially collected data still wouldn’t accurately reflect the extent of drug diversion in the United States. “There’s a lot of people investigators really suspected were diverters but had to be chalked up to sloppy practice due to a lack of concrete evidence, so any statistic is talking about known diverters who are fired for diversion,” she tells <i>Security Management</i>. “Even if you did have a statistic, it would be off because how do you incorporate those so-called sloppy practicers, or diverters who thought they were about to get caught so they quit on you and left? No matter what number you come to, it’s probably bigger in reality.”​</p><h4>Addiction and Diversion</h4><p>Although more people are paying attention to drug diversion due to recent high-profile cases and the current opioid epidemic in the United States, experts say they have been dealing with the same problems their entire careers. </p><p>“I can personally tell you that I dealt with the same issues 15 or 20 years ago that the healthcare arena is facing today, specifically in the drug abuse and diversion by their own hospital healthcare employees,” says Charlie Cichon, executive director of the National Association of Drug Diversion Investigators (NADDI) and a member of the ASIS International Pharmaceutical Security Council. “There are different drugs today, of course, than there were 20 years ago.”</p><p>Susan Hayes has been a private detective for healthcare facilities for more than a decade and says the opioid epidemic has magnified the drug diversion problem in recent years. “The opioid addiction in America has lit my practice on fire,” she says.</p><p>It’s no secret that opioid addiction has reached epidemic levels in the United States. In 2010, hydrocodone prescriptions were filled 131.2 million times at retail pharmacies alone, making it the most commonly prescribed medication, according to the Mayo Clinic. However, those are just the numbers that were legally prescribed—about 75 percent of people who take opioids recreationally get them from a friend or family member. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately 52 people in the United States die every day from overdosing on prescription painkillers.</p><p>Healthcare workers are not immune to the draw of opioids. In fact, up to 15 percent of healthcare workers are addicted to drugs or alcohol, compared to 8 percent of the general population, according to the Mayo Clinic. </p><p>“Healthcare providers are in very stressful jobs,” Hayes says. “They all have problems. Nurses have emotional attachments to patients that they see die. Even orderlies have very stressful physical jobs, they’re lifting patients. Pharmacists can make mistakes that mean life or death. You have people that are already in very stressful situations, and now you give them access to drugs…. I think the combination is almost deadly.”</p><p>While a bottle of 30mg oxycodone tablets can sell on the street for up to 12 times its price in the pharmacy, most drug diverters are addicts using the drugs themselves. Because of this, diversion shouldn’t be considered just a security concern but a patient safety concern, Cichon says. He references several high-profile diversion cases in which the diverters used the same syringe full of medicine on both themselves and their patients, spreading bacterial infections and hepatitis. In one especially egregious case, a traveling medical technician with hepatitis C would inject himself with his patients’ fentanyl and refill the same syringe with saline, ultimately spreading the virus to at least 30 people in two states.</p><p>Unfortunately, experts acknowledge that most diverters don’t get caught until they have been diverting for so long they start to get sloppy. “The people who are your real problem are the people who are hiding in the weeds, not doing enough to get caught, and those are the ones you want to find,” Mitchell says. “The people they are finding now are the people that have the needle in their arm or somebody has reported them. You want to try to find them before that.”​</p><h4>Out of the Loop</h4><p>Hayes details the path of drugs through a hospital: a pharmacy technician orders the medication from a wholesaler, who will deliver them to the hospital pharmacy. The drugs are sorted and stocked in the pharmacy, where they will remain until they are brought up to the patient floors and stored in various types of locking medicine cabinets. When a patient needs medication, a nurse goes to the medicine cabinet and dispenses the drug for the patient. </p><p>Another ASIS International Pharmaceutical Council member—Matthew Murphy, president of Pharma Compliance Group and former DEA special agent—describes this as the closed loop of distribution. “Once a drug is outside of the closed loop, when it gets dispensed from a pharmacy or administered by a doctor, it’s no longer in the purview of DEA rules and regulations,” he explains. Drugs are most likely to be diverted during those times when they are in transit or exchanging hands, outside of the closed loop.</p><p><strong>Wholesalers.</strong> When fulfilling a pharmacy’s request for medication, wholesalers have just as much of a responsibility to notice if something is amiss as the pharmacy does. Whether it’s a retail pharmacy or a hospital pharmacy, wholesalers are responsible for cutting them off if they start to request unusually high amounts of opioids. </p><p>In 2013, retail pharmacy chain Walgreens was charged $80 million—the largest fine in the history of the U.S. Controlled Substances Act—after committing record-keeping and dispensing violations that allowed millions of doses of controlled substances to enter the black market. Cardinal Health, Walgreens’ supplier, was charged $34 million for failing to report suspicious sales of painkillers. One pharmacy in Florida went from ordering 95,800 pills in 2009 to 2.2 million pills in 2011, according to the DEA. </p><p>Hayes says the fine against the wholesaler was a wake-up call, and now suppliers use algorithms to identify unusual spikes in orders of opiates. Wholesalers can even stop the flow of medication to pharmacies if they believe diversion is occurring—which can be disastrous to a trauma center, Hayes notes.</p><p><strong>Pharmacies.</strong> To restock the shelves, pharmacy technicians compile lists of what medications they are low on to send to the wholesalers at the end of each day. Hayes notes that many pharmacies do not conduct a retroactive analysis on what is being purchased—which is why wholesalers must pay attention to any unusual changes in orders. She stresses the importance of constantly mixing up the personnel who order and stock medications. </p><p>“If you’re both ordering and putting away drugs, that’s a bad thing because you can order six bottles when you only need five and keep one for yourself,” Hayes notes. </p><p>Similarly, it is important to rotate who delivers the drugs to the patient floors. “John the technician has been taking the drugs up to the floors for the last 20 years,” Hayes says. “Well gee, did you ever notice that John drives a Mercedes and has two boats and a house on Long Island? He makes $40,000 a year, did you ever do any investigation into why?”</p><p><strong>On the floor. </strong>Experts agree that the most egregious diversion occurs during the wasting and dispensing process in scenarios similar to the incident Leon witnessed at HCMC. Mitchell explains that all hospitals have different wasting procedures—some require nurses to waste the medication immediately, before they even leave the medication rooms, while others may have a 20-minute window. Other hospitals may prohibit nurses from carrying medication in their pockets to prevent theft or switching. ​</p><h4>Investigations</h4><p>Any company involved with controlled substances, whether manufacturing, distributing, or dispensing, must be registered with the DEA and must adhere to certain rules and regulations—which aren’t always easy to follow.</p><p>Murphy, who worked for the DEA for 25 years, now helps companies follow mandates he calls “vague and difficult to interpret.” For example, DEA requires anyone carrying controlled substances to report “the theft or significant loss of any controlled substance within one business day of discovery.”</p><p>“This hospital had 13 vials of morphine that ‘went missing’ and someone called me in to find out why,” Hayes says. “They asked me, ‘Are 13 vials substantial or not? Do I really need to fill out the form?’ I counsel them on what’s substantial because the language is very loose.”</p><p>Depending on the frequency or significance of these or similar forms, the DEA may open an investigation, Murphy explains. “DEA will look at these recordkeeping forms and determine if in fact everything has been filled out correctly, that they have been keeping good records,” he says. “If DEA determines that they are lax or have not been adhering to requirements, there could be anything from a fine to a letter of admonition requiring corrective actions.” In more serious cases, DEA could revoke the registration because the activity or behavior was so egregious that it was determined that the facility is not responsible enough, Murphy explains. If a facility loses its DEA registration, it cannot dispense controlled substances.</p><p>However, DEA does not get involved in every suspected case of diversion. “There are only so many DEA diversion investigators, so they have to prioritize what they get involved with,” Murphy says. “It has to be pretty egregious for them to get involved to seek a revocation or fine.”</p><p>That’s where people like Hayes come in. “They want me to come in instead of DEA or law enforcement,” she explains. “I’m a private citizen, I understand law enforcement procedures, and I can help them get at the root of the problem before they call in law enforcement.” </p><p>After an investigation into a diverter is opened, it is unclear what happens to the offender. Hayes says that she typically gathers evidence and gets a confession from diverters, at which point her client calls in law enforcement to arrest them. Leon, who was in charge of diversion in­vest­igations at HCMC for 20 years before becoming a consultant for HelioMetrics, was able to investigate but not interview suspected diverters. He tells <em>Security Management</em> that he would call in a sheriff’s detective to interview the suspect.</p><p>Although most diverters are fired when their actions are discovered, they are not always arrested—it’s often at the discretion of their employer. Depending on the diverter’s role, state accreditation boards—such as those that license nurses and pharmacists—would be notified and could potentially conduct their own investigations. </p><p>Cichon cautions that some hospitals hoping to avoid bad press and DEA scrutiny may look for loopholes. “We found out through the course of investigations that if someone resigns and was not sanctioned it may not be a reportable action,” he says. “If we allow this person to resign rather than take action against him, then we don’t have to report it.”</p><p>Murphy notes that DEA typically has no role in individual cases of diversion. “If the diverter has a license from one of those state agencies, usually it’s required that they be reported, and then it’s up to the board how they proceed with the personal license of the individual,” he says. The DEA doesn’t regulate the personnel—that’s up to the state and the facility. </p><p>Cichon notes that the lack of standards when addressing diversion makes it more likely that offenders could slip through the cracks and move on to continue diverting drugs at another facility. “Unfortunately, there are different laws and statutes in every state that set up some sort of reporting requirements,” he says. “There are medical boards, nursing boards, pharmacy boards, and not every worker even falls under some sort of licensing board for that state.” ​</p><h4>Staying Ahead</h4><p>Due to the stigma of discovering diverters on staff, many hospitals just aren’t preparing themselves to address the problem proactively, Cichon explains.</p><p>“This is something that is probably happening but we’re not finding it,” he says. “The statistics I’ve seen at hospitals that are being proactive and looking at this are finding at least one person a month who is diverting drugs in their facility. If a 300-bed hospital is finding one person a month, and Hospital B has the same amount of staff and beds and is finding nothing…”</p><p>NADDI has been providing training for hospitals to develop antidiversion policies. Cichon notes that many hospitals throughout the country have no plan in place to actively look for diverters. “As big as the issue is, many of them are still just not being that proactive in looking at the possibility that this is happening in their facility.”</p><p>Cichon encourages a team approach to diversion that acknowledges diversion as a real threat. “Not just security personnel should be involved with the diversion aspect,” he says. “Human resources, pharmacy personnel, security, everyone is being brought into this investigation, because the bigger picture is patient safety. The diverting healthcare worker typically isn’t one who’s going to be selling or diverting his or her drugs on the street, but they are abusing the drugs while they are working.”</p><p>Leon worked hard on diversion prevention at HCMC after discovering a surprising pattern: almost all of the diverters he investigated wanted to be caught. “What got me on this path of prevention was observing the nurses as they would admit to what they did,” he explains. “More often than not the nurses would say, ‘I wanted somebody to stop me. I needed help, didn’t know how to ask for it, and I was hoping somebody would stop me.’ That’s pretty powerful when you’re sitting there listening to this on a consistent basis.”</p><p>Leon implemented mandatory annual training for everyone in the hospital—from food service workers to surgeons—to recognize the warning signs of drug diversion. “If a nurse or anesthesiologist or physician is speaking with you and telling you they are having these issues, then you should say something,” Leon explains. “It’s not doing the wrong thing—you’re helping them, and that’s the message we sent out. Look, these individuals are not bad individuals. Something happened in their lives that led them down this path.”</p><p>Leon also had cameras installed throughout the hospital that allowed him to observe diversion but also kept his investigations accurate. “We had a nurse who was highly suspected of diverting,” he says. “With the cameras I was able to show that she wasn’t diverting, just being sloppy. The employees appreciated the cameras because it showed they weren’t diverting medication, they just made a mistake.”</p><p>Over time, HCMC personnel became more comfortable coming forward with concerns about their coworkers. Before the facility started the annual training, Leon caught at least one diverter a month. Before he retired, he says, that number had dropped to one or two a year.</p><p>“The success of our program at HCMC was the fact that we paid more attention to educating rather than investigating,” Leon says. “You have to keep those investigative skills up, but you have to spend equal amount of time on prevention and awareness.”</p><p>Mitchell points to algorithmic software that can identify a potential diverter long before their peers could. Taking data such as medicine cabinet access, shift hours, time to waste, and departmental access allows software to identify anomalies, such as a nurse whose time to waste is often high, or a doctor who accesses patients’ files after they have been discharged. </p><p>“Most people are using the logs from the medicine cabinets trying to do statistical analysis,” Mitchell explains. “You find out 60 days or six months later, or you don’t see that pattern emerge by just using one or two data sets. That doesn’t help. The goal is to identify these people as quickly as possible so they are no longer a risk to themselves or the patients or anyone they work with.”</p><p>Murphy encourages facilities to be in full DEA compliance to mitigate diversion. “If somebody wants to steal or becomes addicted, they are going to find a way to do it, and sooner or later they are going to get caught, but then there’s a problem because the hospital has to work backwards to determine how much was stolen and reconcile all that,” he says. He also notes the importance of following up internally on each diversion case and figuring out what went wrong, and adjusting procedures to address any lapses. </p><p>“Every entity that has a DEA program should have diversion protocols in place because if they don’t they are playing Russian roulette with theft and loss and their DEA registration,” Murphy says.  ​</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Strategic-Shrink-Reduction.aspxStrategic Shrink Reduction<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">Security’s long battle against retail theft continues, and it is far from won, but some retailers are making gains. Loss prevention strategies are becoming increasingly more sophisticated, with some retailers leveraging cutting-edge technology, analytics, and an even more engaged workforce to fight thieves and stay one step ahead of always-evolving shoplifting methods.</span></p><p> Global shrink has declined by 4.8 percent in the last year, due in part to an increased focus on loss prevention measures, according to a recent study of retail theft across the world. The report, The Global Retail Theft Barometer 2013-2014, examined the cost of merchandise theft in the global retail industry in 24 countries spread throughout Asia, Europe, North America, and South America.</p><p>What’s driving the progress? One major factor is increased investment in loss prevention programs. The study found clear correlations between how much a country’s retail industry spent on loss prevention and the retail loss rate in that country. Countries with the best shrink reduction rates had spent the most on preventive countermeasures, while those with the highest losses spent the least on prevention.</p><p>This is a lesson that some retailers in the United States could benefit from, says Ernie Deyle, former vice president of loss prevention for CVS/Caremark who now leads the shrink reduction and margin recovery practice for SD Retail Consulting. Deyle says that when he does “triage” work in the field, some stores consider loss prevention an expense area, a place where they minimize spending in hopes of minimizing costs. So the idea that loss prevention is actually a competitive asset area is “usually overlooked,” often to the detriment of the store’s financial bottom line. “When you control loss, you improve your profit,” says Deyle, who helped conduct the study in conjunction with The Smart Cube, a research and analytics firm. </p><p>However, simply spending more money on prevention is not the sole answer to the problem, Deyle adds. The report found that the most effective loss prevention programs are multifaceted: they often combine the strategic use of technology and physical security measures with data analytics.</p><p>For example, a multifaceted program might employ electronic article surveillance (EAS). EAS devices have been shown to be among the most effective of retail security technologies, the report found. But relying on one tactic or device, even one as effective as EAS, is “like putting up a gate with no fence,” Deyle says. </p><p>Instead, multifaceted loss prevention programs may couple an EAS system with a merchandising plan that covers product placement strategies to avoid theft. The merchandising plan might use analytics on loss data to determine things like what shelves are most vulnerable to theft, which items are most likely to be stolen, and when peak theft occurs. Product placement strategies might include the best arrangements and facings for items to minimize theft, Deyle explains. For example, arranging products in a way that takes longer to lift them off the shelf can deter some shoplifters. “They want quick in, quick out, without being noticed,” Deyle says. </p><p>Moreover, loss prevention plans should be constantly evolving. Shoplifters who are foiled will change their practices accordingly, so retailers need to continually change their tactics as well. “It’s about being strategically positioned,” Deyle says. “You need to stay ahead of the curve.” </p><p>While the 4.8 percent global shrink decline is encouraging, retail shrink still costs an estimated $128 billion worldwide, evidence that theft is still a serious problem for the industry, according to the report. The loss is the equivalent of 1.29 percent of sales in each of the 24 countries examined in the study. The annual cost of shrink to households, as passed on from retailers, ranges from $74 to $541, depending on the country. </p><p>Roughly two-thirds of shrinkage worldwide (slightly more than 65 percent) is due to shoplifting, followed by employee theft. In most countries (16 of 24), shoplifting is the biggest cause of shrinkage, but this can vary. For example, in the United States, employee theft ranked first at 43 percent, with shoplifting next at 37 percent. In Norway, a low shrinkage country, administrative losses are the major source of shrinkage.</p><p>Comparatively, shrinkage rates across the 24 countries in the report range from 0.83 percent to 1.7 percent. Mexico recorded the highest rate—1.7 percent—followed by China with 1.53 percent. The lowest shrinkage rates were in Japan, Norway, the United Kingdom, and Turkey. </p><p>In the United States alone, retail theft costs $42 billion annually, equal to an average of $403 per household. Shoplifters and dishonest employees most commonly target products that are easy to conceal and then resell.  Some of the most frequently pilfered items include mobile phones, spirits, fashion accessories and jewelry, makeup products, and computer tablets.  </p><p>Almost all types of U.S. retail stores were hit by employee theft and shoplifting, but the most affected were U.S. discounters, with losses equaling 2.78 percent of sales; pharmacies/drugstores, 2.16 percent; and supermarkets/grocery retailers, 1.38 percent. These three types of stores witnessed the highest shrink rates because of the widespread prevalence of organized retail crime combined with relatively lower loss prevention spending, according to the report. </p><p>While retailers are making progress with sophisticated loss prevention programs, another recent report points the way toward an alternate means of reducing retail shrinkage—by improving the engagement level of the workforce. </p><p>This report, Making the Link: the Role of Employee Engagement in Controlling Retail Losses, surveyed more than 200,000 staff members in 1,570 stores under three European retail chains. Employee engagement was measured across 18 factors, such as “staff believe their ideas and suggestions are taken seriously” and “staff feel appreciated and valued.” Four indicators of retail loss were examined: shrinkage, waste, cash loss, and lost sales driven by out-of-stock merchandise. The report was conducted by ECR Europe’s Shrinkage and On-Shelf Availability Group, with support from the University of Leicester. </p><p>The study found that 15 of the 18 employee engagement factors influenced store loss. It also found that the stores that had the highest loss rate could significantly reduce that rate with a more engaged workforce. The report “graphically highlights the difference that engaged and valued staff can make to retail profitability—not just by providing excellent customer service, but also through a reduction in the many and varied losses retailers experience,” write the authors of the report. (For more on employee engagement best practices, see “The Disengagement Dilemma” on page 52).  </p><p>Like the previous report, Making the Link also found that managers played a pivotal role in keeping employees engaged. To heighten engagement levels and reduce loss, the authors recommended that managers provide more opportunities for staff development, keep staff informed about the organization, solicit staff ideas, and make sure that staff have satisfying, manageable roles. </p><p>“For all the advances in technology and analytics, the importance of employees must not be minimized,” the authors write. “Retailing is fundamentally about people—principally the customer but also the employees tasked to service their needs.”</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/The-Golden-Rule.aspxThe Golden Rule<p>​</p><p>HIGH IN THE ANDES mountains of northern Peru, 375 miles north of the capital city of Lima, is the Yanacocha mine—Latin America’s largest gold mine. The site, which is majority-owned by Colorado-based Newmont Mining Corporation, consists of six open pit mines, four leach pads, and three gold recovery plants. More than 100 small, rural communities fall within its influence area. While communities situated near Yanacocha have been concerned in the past about the mine’s impact on local water supplies and a lack of communication from the company, Lee Langston, Newmont’s regional director of security for South America, says that most concerns are related to employment.</p><p>Tensions over those concerns resulted in a series of protests in August 2006. Farmers blocked the road to Yanacocha for one week, and production at the mine came to a standstill for two days. According to media reports, protestors’ original demand for jobs turned to anger over environmental concerns, and in one violent clash, protestors blocking the road threw stones at police. In the response, one farmer was shot and killed.</p><p>The incident highlights the often strained relationships between local communities and international extractive companies operating abroad. As a result of this and other security conflicts between Newmont and the communities surrounding the mine in recent years, the company is in the process of implementing a new approach to security that recognizes the importance of human rights and community outreach.</p><p>Human Rights<br>The mining industry has an increased awareness of the connection between community relations and security today compared to a decade ago. “I think increasingly there really is a recognition on the part of the mining companies we work with that there is a degree of indivisibility between what you are doing in terms of your community relations or your community investment and security,” says Aidan Davy, a program director for socio-economic contribution for the London-based International Council on Mining & Metals (ICMM), an industry group which counts Newmont among its members.</p><p>Davy attributes the change to the influence of the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights, an initiative of private companies, governments, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), that is intended to provide guidance to extractive companies on how they can maintain the safety and security of operations while ensuring respect for human rights.</p><p>The Voluntary Principles, as they are commonly called, were established in 2000 and primarily address three issues: risk assessment, engaging with public security forces, and interacting with private security forces. For each of these issues, the Voluntary Principles provide several guidelines. Signatory organizations commit to abiding by the principles and submit annual reports on activities.</p><p>Extractive companies have historically taken a silo approach to security and community relations, Davy says, but the Voluntary Principles have led to a more synergistic approach. “Instead of taking the view of conventional security that our role is to protect our people and our assets in that order and [that] people outside the fence line or communities may represent a threat to either people or assets, the Voluntary Principles take the view that in legitimately providing security for people and assets, there is a genuine risk that you might compromise the safety, security, and wellbeing of people outside the fence line,” he explains.</p><p>That shift in perspective, he says, has helped companies realize the importance of aligning what they are doing in the security space to what they are doing in the community relations space. “That has had a profound influence, I would say, in terms of sensitizing people to the idea that these matters are closely related,” he says. </p><p>Slow Going<br>Davy admits that there is some public dissatisfaction about the lack of progress in implementation of the Voluntary Principles. “That absolutely is not the fault of companies exclusively,” he says. “I think it’s because, at its heart, the Voluntary Principles rely on a tripartite model of government, civil society, and company collective engagement and collaboration, and at times, I think they’ve failed to move this thing forward in a way that’s been collaborative.”</p><p>Indeed, one of the biggest challenges, according to Langston, is enforcing human rights in a foreign country and in remote areas. “The real challenge is that [we are] a private company, a foreign private company, [so] sometimes if it’s not approached delicately, government institutions can feel that you’re treading into their area of governing,” Langston says.</p><p>Davy says implementation guidance of the Voluntary Principles has also been lacking. “What’s been missing is practical guidance that will help people really move forward with implementation,” he says. An implementation guidance tool is currently being created by a coalition that includes the Voluntary Principles Secretariat, ICMM, the International Finance Corporation, the International Committee for the Red Cross, and the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA). The guide should be available within a year, Davy says.</p><p>Newmont, which is an ICMM member, was one of the first companies to sign on to the Voluntary Principles in 2001. But Oxfam America, an NGO participant in the Voluntary Principles, lodged a complaint against the mining company in 2007 with the initiative’s Secretariat. That complaint was in response not only to the protests in 2006 and the death of farmer Isidro Llanos Chavarria but also to allegations later that year of illegal wiretapping, surveillance, and death threats by a private security company employed by Newmont against a prominent human rights activist and outspoken critic of the company.</p><p>Newmont and Oxfam America subsequently agreed to a third-party comprehensive review of Yanacocha’s security management and practices. The review consisted of interviews with company executives, Peruvian National Police authorities, representatives from two of the three hired security companies employed by Yanacocha, NGO personnel, and community leaders.</p><p>A summary of the review of Yanacocha’s security and human rights procedures was released publicly last summer. “The total review identified areas of strong performance as well as the processes that they felt Yanacocha could improve upon,” says Langston. Newmont and Yanacocha analyzed the review and then developed a plan of action to implement the report’s recommendations for a new approach to security and human rights.</p><p>New Action Plan<br>The plan of action that came out of the review included short-term objectives that would be implemented by the end of 2009, medium-term objectives that would be implemented by the end of 2010, and long-term objectives that would be done in 2011. In terms of implementing recommendations for the Yanacocha site, Langston, as regional security director, is responsible for ensuring that they are completed in the timeframe set by the committee.</p><p>One example of a short-term objective is the creation of a Risk Assessment and Conflict Resolution Office. Langston says the company had a similar office before but it was not as effective as it could have been. One problem was that it only addressed complaints filed directly with the office. For instance, if an allegation appeared in the media, it was not considered a legitimate complaint.</p><p>“Well, you have to be reasonable,” Langston says. “If it’s floating around in the media, you better address it as a complaint.” Now the office considers all allegations no matter how they get word of them. “One of our employees can say he heard something in a store, and that would be investigated,” Langston adds.</p><p>Investigations. Yanacocha now investigates all use-of-force incidents. “Anytime any of our security people have an incident, whether it’s with an employee or a contractor or a community member, that is reported and treated just as if it is an allegation so we can determine whether the force used was reasonable or not,” Langston says.</p><p>All such reports undergo a new process of evaluation as well. If the risk level is classified as low, the incident is evaluated by a human rights and security investigation committee, which includes the site security manager as well as representatives from legal and operations. Representatives from other relevant departments are also on the committee.</p><p>For instance, if an incident involves the community, someone from the social responsibility department is there; if an allegation concerns an employee or contractor, a human resources or contracts manager serves on the committee. They assess the allegation and determine whether it has merit.</p><p>If the allegation is deemed legitimate, the committee orders an investigation and picks an investigation team to report back with results and recommendations. The onsite committee must also keep the South American regional board, which mirrors the committee at the site level, informed.</p><p>If the risk level of a complaint is considered medium, the regional-level committee handles it, and if it is a high-risk complaint, corporate, which also has a similar body, investigates.</p><p>Working with police. Because the response time is so long from Cajamarca, a contingent of police officers is stationed at the mine and rotated on a monthly basis. The company pays the police officers a daily stipend and provides lodging and meals and makes a contribution to the police institution for their services as stipulated in a formal memorandum of understanding (MOU).</p><p>In addition, the MOU has provisions for additional response to the mine area if an incident should occur. However, one of Yanacocha’s medium-term objectives is to work with the police to make this MOU more transparent. The police acknowledge on their Web site that they have an agreement with the mine, Langston says, but they do not publish the contents of the MOU, which is important information for the local community to have. </p><p>One of the long-term objectives is to expand the police training to the regional and national levels, but it will take time. “Obviously it’s the state’s responsibility to do this kind of stuff,” Langston says. But, “[i]f we can help them with a reasonable cost to the company, we’re going to do that.”</p><p>The comprehensive review also recommended equipping police forces with nonlethal weapons, Langston says. “We’re not so sure [as a] company that we want to get involved in providing that type of material, because it’s nonlethal, but it’s offensive in nature,” Langston says. Currently the company provides protective gear for police who are stationed at the mine site or who are responding to an incident. These items include helmets, shields, padding, and other riot response equipment.</p><p>Equipping police raises concerns beyond just the cost to the company, Langston says. There are also legal concerns. “We need to be very cognizant of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act when we talk about equipping people,” he says. “We have to have some means of monitoring the use of that equipment.” </p><p>Another objective the company hopes to meet by the end of this year is the establishment of regular, formal meetings with public security partners, which include the national police as well as the military. Newmont’s security officials currently engage in formal, high-level meetings with these partners at least once a year, but the company is negotiating with Peru’s interior and defense ministries to set up a formal schedule that would include meeting twice a year at the ministry level and quarterly with generals at the regional level.</p><p>The purpose of the meetings is to assess collaboration and discuss ways to improve performance within the framework of the Voluntary Principles. Yanacocha’s security manager, Jose Antonio Rios Pita Diez, CPP, currently meets with local police on a weekly basis.</p><p>Human rights training. In 2008, in an effort to improve the company’s implementation of the Voluntary Principles even before the review was completed, Yanacocha launched two training programs designed to raise awareness among employees and contractors about the importance of respecting human rights. One program is basic training in human rights and provides an overview of relevant initiatives Newmont is involved with, such as the Voluntary Principles and the United Nations Global Compact. Each participant also receives a primer on human rights.</p><p>In the first year, 3,000 participants benefited from the program, including all of the security contractor personnel working for Yanacocha. The program continues on an annual basis.</p><p>The second training program launched the same year is training in the Voluntary Principles. This program targets the mine’s security staff, contractor personnel, and police assigned to the site. Training focuses on ways to ensure the safety of Yanacocha’s employees and operations while respecting human rights. </p><p>In the first year, the training was provided only to security and contractor supervisors and to public security officers assigned to provide support to the operation. In 2009, all security personnel received the training, which includes use-of-force instruction and a code of conduct for law enforcement officers. The training is being extended in 2010 to Newmont’s Conga project, which is also in Peru, and its Merian project in Suriname. </p><p>Community relations. Yanacocha’s security department has also launched a security-community integration program to improve relationships and trust between security personnel and local communities. As a part of the program, security personnel work with security contract personnel, the police, the military, and local businesses and organizations to plan one-day festivals in isolated communities in the mine’s area of influence. Some activities include music provided by the army or police bands, Andean folk dances, lunch prepared and served by security personnel, and social services, such as presentations on family planning, spousal abuse, and hygiene conducted by the police health unit.</p><p>The security department spearheads approximately one event per month, going to a different local village each time. Security personnel and their families attend. Not only do the events build trust between company and contract employees and the communities, but they also improve relations between the state law enforcement personnel and the local Indian communities, Langston says. </p><p>Yanacocha’s Diez says that it is important to venture into the community relations realm, even though others may consider it the work of an external affairs or social responsibility department.</p><p>“We are doing our work in a preventive way because if we have some problems in the road, the problem also will be for the security department and also for our company,” he says. “We are working in a preventive way in order to avoid these kinds of situations.”</p><p>On a regional level, Newmont is working with the Interior Ministry to assist and provide resources to the rondas campesinas, or rural peasant patrols, which have developed over centuries to provide security for their own rural communities. Each local community has its own ronda. Newmont provides them with minor equipment and gear that makes the ronda campesina stand out in the community, such as vests that say “Ronda” and identify the community; flashlights, boots, and some rain gear.</p><p>Results<br>The goal of these community outreach efforts at its simplest was—and is—to “put a face” on security. The hope was that if local residents got to know security personnel as people before there was an incident, then when they showed up on the scene to respond to trouble, the locals might be disgruntled, but they would be “less likely to pick up a rock or a stick and start to assault the guard. And that’s exactly what we’re seeing,” says Langston.</p><p>He says that security personnel are met more cordially on the road and that they now have conversations with members of the communities. Both Langston and Diez say the efforts at Yanacocha are also showing some tangible results. For example, the company experienced 25 roadblocks in 2007 and only one last year. The company also tracks conflicts that involve physical force, and those incidents have dropped from 64 in 2007 to six in 2009.</p><p>Langston has noticed a growing awareness that community relations affect security and vice versa. “Used to be security was checking the lunchbox at the gate, and it’s much more than that now,” he says. “You have to go beyond the fence, and that takes a whole different mind-set and set of skills.”</p><p>Stephanie Berrong is an assistant editor at Security Management.<br></p>GP0|#3795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e;L0|#03795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e|Security by Industry;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465