Guard Force Management RelationshipsGP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652019-01-01T05:00:00Z, Holly Gilbert Stowell<p>​​​Kevin Wren was working as a school resource officer (SRO) at a South Carolina high school in the early 2000s when he was called to the assistant principal’s office. Two female students were involved in an altercation about a boy—could the SRO help the girls mediate their way to a peaceful resolution?</p><p>But the violence only escalated when the two girls tried to talk it out. “We’re in the middle of the mediation, this girl flips out—next thing I know, she and I are both through the sheetrock wall in the assistant principal’s office,” Wren recalls of the incident. “So, we get up, we dust off…and I told her, ‘Jessica, you and I are going to become real close.’”</p><p>And become close they did. Jessica, who was also struggling in school, was initially resistant, but Wren began escorting her to every single class, every single school day. </p><p>“And from that day forward for about two weeks, I walked her every day to every one of her classes,” he says. “We built a relationship. It was great to watch her go from failing, and this huge issue over some boy—and she wound up graduating on time.” </p><p>Wren, who now serves as director of risk, security, and emergency management for Rock Hill School District in South Carolina, says he keeps a picture of Jessica on his desk to remind him of the impact SROs have on students’ lives. </p><p>“I’m not a former SRO, I’m a recovering SRO,” he quips. “Because once you’ve got it, and you’re there with the kids and you know it’s the right thing to do, you just miss that interaction.”  </p><p><strong>The role.</strong> SROs are involved in more than just law enforcement—experts say that role is a tertiary one compared to the education and relationship building that SROs participate in at schools across the United States, ultimately impacting the lives of students.  </p><p>Recent events have highlighted the role of SROs, both for better and for worse. During the February 2018 Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School shootings in Parkland, Florida, in which 17 students and faculty were killed, a sheriff’s deputy working as an SRO was lambasted for remaining outside the school building during the shooting—rather than going inside and responding to the threat. </p><p>On the flipside, an SRO at a high school in southern Maryland was praised for quickly intervening when a male student opened fire in the hallway, injuring two students in March 2018. Though it was the shooter who ended up taking his own life, the actions of the SRO were credited with eliminating the threat to those inside the school. </p><p>SROs are sworn law enforcement, in uniform and with a weapon, who are usually assigned to work in a school environment fulltime—though states as well as school districts across the United States have varying degrees of SRO involvement on their campuses. The SROs are assigned by their local police department and directly report to those agencies. </p><p>Some states are highly regulated when it comes to the role and involve­ment of the SRO—others rely heavily on local law enforcement bodies to assist when needed, but don’t necessarily have a fulltime officer interacting with the students and staff. </p><p>In New Jersey, former Governor Chris Christie mandated a legislative task force to draft guidance for law enforcement representatives in schools in 2015. </p><p>“The recommendation was that there should be a school resource officer stationed in every school,” says Kevin Craig, school safety specialist at High Point Regional High School District who served on the task force.</p><p>Craig, a retired New Jersey police chief and member of the ASIS International School Safety and Security Council, says that while the recommendation is ideal in theory, there aren’t always enough resources to staff an SRO at each campus. </p><p>“Reasonably and realistically, implementing that, with costs and benefits and everything else, can become cumbersome for many police departments and schools, particularly because there are more than 600 school districts in the state of New Jersey,” he notes. </p><p>As a solution, the state came up with a new category of law enforcement officer—called a Class Three Special Law Enforcement Officer (SLEO)—in lieu of an SRO. </p><p>“Class three officers are retired police officers who have to go through the same school resource officer training that traditional SROs would have to go through,” Craig explains. “So, it gives [schools] a lower cost option to still facilitate that sworn law enforcement presence.” </p><p>Class three SLEOs must abide by several standards, including completion of basic police training, retiring in good standing, and having been retired for less than three years. </p><p>So far, Craig notes that the class three program has been a success—adding that tragedies like Parkland and the shooting at a high school in Santa Fe, Texas, spurred schools to adopt the program. </p><p>“The first year of implementation they got off to a slow start, but many schools in New Jersey…are researching and implementing class threes in their schools,” he says. ​</p><p><strong>NASRO. </strong>There is a national member organization for SROs, the National Association for School Resource Officers (NASRO), that provides standardized training for law enforcement working in schools. </p><p>Mo Canady, director at NASRO, says that working in an educational environment requires proper training. </p><p>“It’s the most unique assignment in law enforcement; there’s nothing else like it,” he tells Security Management. “And you’ve got to be trained on how to properly work in that environment.” </p><p>NASRO recommends that SROs have at least three years of experience in law enforcement before being assigned to a school. </p><p>“At one minute, they have to be teaching a group of kids in a classroom or mentoring a student, and at the flip of a switch—in a split second—turn into the best tactical officer the department has to be able to stop a violent incident,” he says. “So, it’s quite a balance we’re talking about.”</p><p>According to Canady, training in special education and diversity are critical. “If you hear someone talking about ADHD, or a manifestation of a student’s disability, it can be very frustrating as an officer to come into that environment and not understand some of those things that are being talked about,” he says.​</p><p><strong>Responsibilities. </strong>The shadow of an active assailant threat looms large over U.S. K-12 schools, and SROs are being prepared to protect their campuses should the event arise. Still, Canady says SROs must remain focused on the day-to-day threats that are much more likely to occur and affect student safety. </p><p>“Most SROs, most schools are never going to face an active shooter event,” Canady notes. “It’s a high impact event with low probability, and so we have to be prepared for it.” </p><p>He says the higher likelihood on any given day for an SRO is dealing with students who may have problems at home, abuse narcotics, or are involved in criminal mischief. </p><p>“This is where we want SROs to be actively engaging with students in a positive way, through informal counseling and through education,” Canady says. </p><p>Still, SRO training would be remiss not to include active assailant response tactics. “Back in the Columbine days, we were waiting for SWAT teams to arrive,” Craig notes of SROs. “Now the expectation is that the first officer on the scene is going to enter the building and try to neutralize any threat and any active shooter incident.”</p><p>When it comes to day-to-day classroom management, Craig says SROs should not cross the line between basic disciplinary tactics and using excessive amounts of force against a student who misbehaves. </p><p>“We’ve seen some difficult situations throughout the country where force has been used, sometimes excessively,” he notes. </p><p>While those difficult situations may be rare, some have garnered national attention. A viral video, for example, surfaced from a South Carolina high school in October 2015. It depicted an SRO slamming a student to the ground after she refused to leave class for causing a disruption. The video called into question whether SROs should be as involved in classroom disciplinary issues. </p><p>Craig iterates that if a student refuses to put his or her cellphone away, for example, that’s the type of discipline a teacher, administrator, or even school security staff should handle, not the SRO. </p><p>“If the behavior rises to the level where someone’s being physically assaulted—there’s a physical danger of physical threat to that student or to someone else—those are the situations where SROs are going to get involved,” he notes. ​</p><p><strong>Relationship building.</strong> Experts emphasize that one of the most important functions of SROs is their ability to detect and prevent threats through relationships with students. </p><p>“There are multiple situations where a good SRO…has come to discover that we have a child that’s in danger—in a situation at home or wherever it may be—and they have taken steps to get the child help,” Canady notes.</p><p>He recalls the case of a veteran SRO in the southeast United States, who was called to a classroom to deal with a disruptive female student. </p><p>“She walked her down to the administrative offices….and just sat down and talked with the student,” he says. “And what came to light in this discussion is that she was being sexually abused by her mother’s live-in boyfriend, and it had been going on for over a year.” </p><p>In that case, the SRO was able to help make a case against the mother’s abusive boyfriend, and he was sentenced to jail. </p><p>“So instead of having a situation where we’ve got a student arrested for disorderly conduct, we had a very good SRO in place that knew there was something more to the story, and took the time to deal with it,” Canady says. “SROs are doing that all over the country right now.”</p><p>Tips given to SROs by students or even members of the community also prove invaluable in stopping threats or determining their credibility. Craig notes that social media has become a breeding ground for information on possible threats to student safety. </p><p>“Our students, they are on social media all the time, so they see a lot more and hear a lot more of potential threats and things that could potentially impact the school district than the adults,” he says. </p><p>In one instance, a student posted a threat on social media that centered around a school football game. After the SRO was notified of the post, the school identified the student and conducted a risk assessment, ultimately concluding that the threat was not a credible one. </p><p>“Our students are very comfortable with the fact that they can communicate with our SROs and let them know about those threats…so they can try and take preventative action, rather than have to react after something happens,” Craig explains.</p><p><strong>Partnerships. </strong>Partnering with other stakeholders is key to an SRO’s success. Wren notes that it’s critical to bring the officers and administrators together, as well as the three law enforcement agencies in his school district, to conduct training, drills, and tabletop exercises. </p><p>“We bring our SROs and administrators together every year for a training session, and we talk about emergency planning, emergency management,” he says. “We talk about security, we reiterate our policies, and our memorandum of agreement between the agencies.” </p><p>NASRO continues to be involved in initiatives and partnerships across the country to help improve the training and overall effectiveness of SROs. Former U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions spoke at the organization’s national conference in June 2018, where he announced $25 million in funding for training and technology to improve school emergency reporting. </p><p>“I believe this funding is going to make you more effective—and that will make the children of this country safer,” Sessions said.</p><p>In July, Canady had the opportunity to testify before the Federal Commission on School Safety at the White House, along with two other NASRO board members. He says he believes the future of the organization partly depends on this public-private collaboration. </p><p>“We’ve been engaged on a lot of things over the last few months…so that’s exciting,” he notes. “We have a great relationship with the federal government right now.” </p><p>In addition, the organization recently released new standards on school-based policing that were added to the Library of Congress. </p><p>While stopping threats, providing guidance, and attempting to change students’ lives for the better are the goals for an SRO program, Wren emphasizes that it’s the student who must be willing to make a change in his or her own life. Another photo on his desk, opposite of Jessica’s, serves as a stark reminder of this truth. </p><p>As a soccer coach during his SRO days, Wren had a player named Mike who was hard working and dedicated. But over time, he began skipping practice, and Wren did his best to inspire the boy to change. Eventually, Mike went down a bad path, which the adults in his life were ultimately powerless to stop.</p><p>“He was arrested with another kid and eight other football players for armed robbery, and he just got out of prison this past year,” Wren says. “It’s still up to the student to make the right decision…I know that I did everything I could do.” </p><p>He adds, “SROs…they are going home with a clear conscience that they have done everything they can either to prevent something from happening, or to build that relationship with that student to get them through to graduation.”   </p><p><em>Holly Stowell is former associate editor at</em> Security Management. </p><div><br></div>

Guard Force Management Relationships the Control Room of Tomorrow.aspx2018-12-01T05:00:00ZBuilding the Control Room of Tomorrow,-Individual-Wellness.aspx2018-08-01T04:00:00ZOrganizational Health, Individual Wellness Balk on Bud,-Unarmed-Officer.aspx2018-04-01T04:00:00ZActive Assailant, Unarmed Officer the Force and the United Nations in the Workplace Are People First Technology with a Personal Touch a Professional Guard Force Education Sessions Address Security Challenges Thanks: National Security Officer Appreciation Week Kicks Off Color Theory 2 Peer Protection Guard Scheduling Conundrum¡PRESTA-ATENCIÓN!.aspx2017-07-13T04:00:00Z¡PRESTA ATENCIÓN! Role of School Resource Officers and Security: The Risks of Arming Security Officers Next Tase Phase

 You May Also Like... the Control Room of Tomorrow.aspxBuilding the Control Room of Tomorrow<p>​At the center of an enterprise organization’s security op­eration stands its nucleus, arguably one of the most important pieces for overall functionality and efficiency: a command center or security operations center (SOC). A place where a variety of systems and solutions come together, the command center exists to provide a common operational picture, mitigate threats, and promote enhanced communication during an incident.</p><p>The goal of any command center is to monitor, assess, and respond to a variety of threats and incidents. As technologies advance and trends develop, so too do the strategies in place to meet this goal. There are several considerations that must be made when designing the control room of the future. </p><p><strong>Space</strong>. For many companies, a control room may be allotted space in a basement or small windowless room chosen as an afterthought. While some companies are limited by space, many decide the SOC’s location is unimportant. This can be a big mistake when designing a control room that will serve the company now and into the future. It’s critical for this space to be large enough to house important equipment that allows operators to view the relevant incoming data and make informed decisions, but it’s also necessary for the space to be scalable as needs change, technology evolves and coverage increases, and a company grows.</p><p><strong>Operator comfort</strong>. Space isn’t the only consideration when designing an SOC or control room. Central to the success of any organization is the ability for security operators to quickly and efficiently take information coming into an SOC and act on that information to identify risks and mitigate threats. Operator comfort, as a result, should be central to the design of a control room, taking lighting, console comfort, ergonomics, ambient noise, and temperature into careful consideration. If operators are uncomfortable or distracted, in pain with a sore neck due to bad viewing angles, or too warm in a room without proper ventilation, they can miss out on critical events or emergencies. Addressing these before they become problematic is crucial in the design stage of an SOC.</p><p><strong>Technology. </strong>When it comes to building a mission-critical SOC, there's a reason why large-scale video walls that showcase a number of incoming data points are dominant. Uniform and integrated visual elements are imperative to the success of an SOC or control room, because operators and first responders require the most up-to-date and complete information regarding incoming security-related events. Additionally, the technology needed to bring multiple data streams together in a single-pane-of-glass view is an important consideration to make, and hiring a control room integrator that specializes in this technology can streamline the process and result in better situational awareness across the board.</p><p><strong>Data convergence</strong>. Command centers today combine a number of security components, but as end users demand an emphasis on the full umbrella of security rather than small silos, facilities are focused on including additional pieces, such as risk and threat assessment, employee travel, and social media monitoring. Data incorporation is also a critical element, and command centers must be able to collect any number of data points for effective data aggregation. Dashboards that can make sense of a large amount of information can streamline decision-making and response.</p><p><strong>Innovation</strong>. While words like artificial intelligence and machine learning are often whispers around the industry, for innovative companies, these terms are becoming more commonplace as they enter a new frontier in how data is collected and analyzed to deliver information to security operators. The control room of the future brings innovative software and systems to the forefront, taking existing sensors that are providing a wealth of information and layering an additional method by which to understand what is happening and make decisions about the organization’s health. </p><p>Enterprise organizations rely on their SOC for business operations. In times of an emergency, and as risks become more severe, a complete situational picture is necessary. Taking into consideration the space, operator comfort, technology, data convergence, and future innovation can set security managers up for success in protecting their enterprises.  </p><p>Dan Gundry is director of national control room sales at Vistacom.</p><p><br></p>GP0|#69b4a912-eafa-43d2-b6a4-8aed47f69245;L0|#069b4a912-eafa-43d2-b6a4-8aed47f69245|Security Technology;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465 Panacea or Problem<p>Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is the most vibrant color on the security engineer’s and integrator’s palette, but it can also be the most wasteful.  It all hinges on whether you understand its limitations.  I’ve designed, specified, or surveyed hundred’s of CCTV systems and, in my opinion, from 25% to 50% of video cameras represent wasted money, depending on the application. In some cases, there are serious hidden legal liabilities.</p><p>CCTV sales exploded after 9-11.  No one has definitive numbers and industry-generated estimates vary wildly, but annual revenues from CCTV sales are likely to range from $1.3 to $2.4 billion.</p><p>According to Security Sales & Integration Annual Installation Business Report (2006), CCTV installations experienced the second highest increase ever recorded.  (The highest was in 2003, a little more than a year after 9-11.)  Moreover, companies reported average gross profit margins of 39%. That’s pretty good.</p><p>Schools are not the largest market by any means, but they are the most troubling. There is a virtual pandemic of schools installing video cameras willy-nilly in the aftermath of Columbine and Virginia Tech. The lay public, unfortunately, doesn’t understand the technology and ignorantly believes that the simple act of installing cameras stops crime.  Cash-starved high schools, in particular, may be choosing video surveillance over higher teacher pay, text books, or afterschool programs for students.  CCTV is a superb investigative tool after something terrible occurs, but then again, the identification of the shooters in the recent incidents at schools didn’t require video to identify the perpetrators.  With very few exceptions, it is almost a useless tool to prevent serious crimes in most schools because they rarely—if ever—have the staff to effectively monitor the cameras. Too often, the monitors are tucked beneath the counter at the main reception desk.</p><p>I recall a marketing interview I had with a major New England university.  I told their chief of security and the consultant selection committee that they were planning to buy many more cameras than they needed. I didn’t get that job. It’s not what he wanted to hear.</p><p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:200%;"> <strong>Crime Prevention Pitfalls</strong></p><p>Video is ineffectual because it only has crime prevention value under two circumstances: a human continuously monitors it and can call on an almost instantaneous response when a crime occurs.  Few organizations (save the CIA and similar high-security facilities) have the resources to effectively implement these two prerequisites. </p><p>In addition to the potentially exorbitant costs of buying and installing a full coverage video system, the consequent life-cycle costs (labor, repair, and maintenance costs) are massive over time if the video system is properly managed. The alertness of security console operators peaks in 20 minutes, according to many studies.  It is necessary to change monitoring duties every two hours for optimal surveillance—hence, the very high labor costs.  Moreover, a human can’t efficiently and reliably watch more than 9 to 12 monitors—let alone the dozens of monitors that can be found at some security monitoring centers. There is a paradox at play. CCTV is potentially the most valuable security resource as well as the most misused and wasteful.  It is the familiar story of having too much of a good thing. </p><p>Getting back to cost, as a rule of thumb, each indoor camera averages $1500 (as a complete, installed cost, including power, wire, and conduit) and each outdoor camera, $3500.  If all the bells and whistles are added, per camera costs for outdoor, day/night units can easily approach $9,800 per position and up to $60,000 for very exotic capabilities and for very difficult locations. For a very large school, university, hospital, shopping mall, parking garage, or office building, the final costs for complete video systems can range from hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars. Sometimes these expenditures are like flushing money down a toilet.</p><p>To put what I have been saying into a useful context, a very short tutorial is called for.  CCTV serves three primary functions: perform surveillance; support post-incident investigations, including identification; and automate a function, such as at remotely controlled doors or vehicle entrances. It has momentous value for crime investigation.  Most organizations, however, purchase video systems with the generally unrealistic expectations that it will prevent crime. Often, they have little understanding of security console operations or ergonomics.</p><p>There are some interesting and growing secondary applications that are mostly benign.  The increasing popularity of “nanny cams” is well known. The use of CCTV to catch red light runners at busy intersections, to read license plates at tollbooths and airport parking garages, and to catch speeders is also common now.  Similarly, video cameras can reduce bad behavior on school buses. Cameras also work well for law enforcement sting operations. Police park a “bait” automobile in an area known for high incidents of car theft and car-jackings.  When the miscreant enters the vehicle, the police can remotely lock the doors and record the event on video. But as valuable as these various uses are, these kinds of applications rarely involve thwarting serious crimes. Moreover, they document a crime; they don’t prevent it.</p><p>The use of CCTV in conjunction with very sophisticated facial recognition software is an interesting case study.  Every city that has installed these extremely expensive systems, such as Tampa and Virginia Beach, eventually shut them down.  Facial recognition isn’t ready for prime time yet. This new technology fits the same pattern: the consumer does not understand the limitations of unfamiliar technology.</p><p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:200%;"><strong>CCTV in Public Places</strong></p><p>The installation of massive video nets in public spaces is another mounting trend, especially in light of the remarkable success the British had on several occasions in identifying and then tracking suspected terrorists after an attack.  Bear in mind that the United Kingdom has 4.2 million CCTV cameras in place.  There is a camera for every 14 people and an average Londoner is seen on camera 300 times each day.  The United States isn’t even close to that kind of surveillance saturation on a per capita basis, but we’re catching up fast. City after city is embarking on public video surveillance programs. By some accounts, downtown Manhattan already has 4,200 public and private sector video cameras. The NYPD would like to install 3,000 new cameras by the end of 2008. Police departments in Baltimore, Hollywood, Houston, Memphis, Newark, San Diego, Tampa, Virginia Beach, Washington, D.C., and in many other cities are installing video cameras and connecting to feeds from private sector CCTV systems. This is a great idea if the objective is to support post-incident investigations. Whether these systems contribute to crime reduction is still controversial—and in my view, dubious.</p><p>With the recent Federal trend toward design-build contracts, government bodies at all levels typically uses companies that sell and install video systems to determine how much CCTV they need, rather than impartial security engineers and consultants. It’s not exactly a surprise that these companies want to sell and install as many CCTV systems as they possibly can. Moreover, this is a partial explanation of the exponential growth of citywide video systems. Yet another reason for this growth is the ever-mounting pressure from the Department of Homeland Security for more and more video. Bear in mind that the British didn’t prevent any of their terrorist attacks as a result of video surveillance.  Could it happen in the future? Sure, even a blind hog can find an acorn now and then.</p><p>The effectiveness of CCTV in public spaces to reduce crime is counterintuitive and controversial. It is not at all clear that crime rates are reduced. Some criminologists think that crime is only displaced by video systems.  When studies do claim CCTV does reduce crime, the reduction is usually marginal.</p><p>In 1995, a study was conducted to determine the deterrent value of various crime prevention factors for convenience stores. These variables included how much cash was kept on site, retreat distance, police patrolling, an armed clerk, and so forth. The researcher interviewed robbers and asked them to rank the most important factors in deciding whether or not to commit the robbery. Of 11 factors, a camera system ranked tenth and video recording, eleventh. These findings were compared to a similar study that was conducted in 1985: the rankings had hardly changed. The finding was also similar to the results from a study completed in the 1970s.  The top two reasons a robber would decide against holding up a store were too little money kept on site and a long or complicated escape route.</p><p>Another phenomenon that could be at play in determining if CCTV deters crime is something called the Hawthorne Effect (or variously, the Westinghouse Effect), a term coined by a study conducted in 1939 at the Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric Company. Efficiency experts wanted to determine the optimal working conditions for maximum production.  Among various techniques, the researchers found that increasing lighting increased production. But there was a surprise. When they later reduced lighting levels to bracket peak efficiency—to the point that workers couldn’t see (some even brought in lamps from home)—production still increased. The explanation is a variant of the famous Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, well known to Star Trek fans. The Principle states that “the act of observing alters that which is being observed.”  This can occur in various ways. There may be direct interference. There can be unconscious bias in reading or collecting the data. There can be factors interacting with the situation that are undiscovered.</p><p>Washington, D.C., conducted a number of lighting studies following the city-wide riots in April 1968 following the Martin Luther King Jr. assassination.  They wanted to learn what type of lighting was best to fight crime: low-pressure sodium, high-pressure sodium, mercury vapor, metal halides, etc. The study seemed to demonstrate that all lighting reduced crime.</p><p>It wasn’t until years later when the results were scrubbed by social psychologists and criminologists that the results became suspect.  Was it the lighting or was it because squad cars were parked on every street to observe the effects? Or, were police officers subconsciously (or consciously) motivated to underreport crime if their performance was being evaluated?  Which played the greatest role? That notwithstanding, few authorities would dispute the conclusion that lighting (and CCTV) can effectively displace crime. </p><p>Displacement is a very good thing if you happen to live or work in a high crime area.  It’s not such a good thing if you live in the area the crime is moving to. The chief question is, “Does CCTV actually reduce crime?” City politicians are more than willing to glom onto crime statistics to suggest that this or that program they championed reduced crime. When crime reductions do occur, a pantheon of factors likely causes the decline. The state of the local and national economy, for example, plays a major role.</p><p><strong>Civil Liberty and Liability Concerns</strong>.There is another very important question that some people feel very strongly, if not fanatically, about. Does saturation video surveillance in public areas violate the right to privacy? Or, is it a Fourth Amendment issue, which governs against unreasonable searches and seizures? The U.S. Supreme Court  in United States vs. Knotts  put part of this matter to bed by determining that surveillance was constitutional when conducted in areas where there should be no expectation of privacy.  However, the other shoe still hasn’t dropped.  Does CCTV surveillance represent unreasonable search? Ever? Sometimes?  Most authorities believe that the Supreme Court will continue to rule in favor of public video surveillance, but it isn’t a dead issue.</p><p>Legal liability is yet another volatile issue related to video surveillance. In our ever litigious society being a crime victim (or faking it) can sometimes be like winning the lottery. Negligent security torts are common and increasing in frequency.  The lawsuits spawned by the 1993 attack on the World Trade Center in Manhattan were only finally settled earlier this year—14 years later. The defendants paid millions. Lawsuits pertaining to the 9-11 attacks are going to the courts now.</p><p>Sometimes lawsuits are, and will be, deserving, because there is true gross negligence at work. I know of one smallish company that couldn’t afford a complete video surveillance system, so they only purchased the cameras.  There were no wires or monitors.  The idea was that the sight of the cameras along the roofline watching a dark and unfenced employee parking lot would deter theft, robbery, and rape. If someone is assaulted in spite of the cameras, someone at that company should not only pay the future victims handsomely; they should probably go to jail.</p><p>Despite their many limitations and problems, CCTV systems can also be an extremely powerful weapon in the security arsenal.  It is of critical importance in a post-incident criminal investigation: sometimes it provides the only clues available to law enforcement. The British success in identifying and then finding terrorists is phenomenal. </p><p>Video can support other important uses as well.  Security guards can do virtual tours of a large building or outdoor area without leaving the guard booth. Some cameras can see in the dark.  If you are using an access card to unlock a door on a cold, rainy night, and if for some reason it doesn’t unlock, the availability of an intercom and a camera showing you to a security guard is priceless. License-plate readers have been a boon to toll booth operators and small towns needing more revenue from speeders and red light runners. Now that technology has taken us to digital video and IP-networked surveillance, the varying applications for CCTV are spectacular. The key for security managers is to understand the system’s limitations so they choose the right system for their organization, without squandering too many resources and without making grandiose claims that only create a false sense of security.</p><hr width="100%" size="2" /><p>John J. Strauchs, CPP, is Senior Principal of Strauchs LLC.</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465 Technology with a Personal Touch<p>​As a financial services organization, Northwestern Mutual helps clients plan now to prepare for the future. And at the end of 2014, the Milwaukee-based company took that goal to task when planning a security strategy for a new building in the heart of the city. The 32-story, 1.1 million-square-foot Northwestern Mutual Tower and Commons houses about 2,400 Northwestern Mutual employees and signals a shift in the organization's approach to business.</p><p>"In essence, it was revolutionizing our organization from an insurance and financial investment company into a financial tech-savvy organization," explains Bret DuChateau, corporate security consultant at Northwestern Mutual. "How do we position ourselves over the next few years to build this brand new state-of-the-art building to attract the workforce of the future, and how leading up to that do we design and integrate systems into that building that will set us up for the future?"</p><p>DuChateau has been on Northwestern Mutual's security team since 2004, and the new building presented an opportunity to not only update the technology but position the organization's security approach as one that will be cutting-edge for years to come. </p><p>Key to this concept was considering how technology could augment a physical security presence through digital guest registration systems, data analytics, and streamlined command center protocols. First, however, DuChateau had to get the entire campus on the same security platform.​</p><h4>COME TOGETHER</h4><p>"The tower is a learning center for all of our financial representatives and employees, designed in a very open and collaborative way from an organizational and customer experience standpoint," DuChateau says. "It certainly positions us where we want to be in the future, but is also designed to connect better with the community here in Milwaukee."</p><p>The new facility connects to three existing Northwestern Mutual buildings via skywalk and also boasts a public commons area featuring gardens, restaurants, and coffee shops, and an interactive museum of the organization's history. With the combination of old and new buildings, as well as public and private areas, it was critical for the campus's access control to work as a unified solution.</p><p>"We had multiple campuses all under one corporate security team, but we were talking two different languages," DuChateau explains. "You would have one system and one set of rules at one campus, and one system and set of rules at the other, and there was no data exchange, so you were always trying to manually keep databases in sync. If someone leaves one site, we have to manually take them out of the other site. Just onboarding and offboarding people, manually entering their first name, last name, and employee number in one system, assigning them access, and then turning to the next computer and entering them in another system. I could go on and on."</p><p>Northwestern Mutual chose AMAG Technology for its Symmetry access control enterprise system and Symmetry GUEST visitor management system to streamline the flow of employees and visitors alike throughout the campus. Now with all buildings on the same platform, and the ability to automate several of the processes that had previously been manual, Northwestern Mutual estimates it saves about 14 hours a month when it comes to managing the access control system.</p><p>"You're not only looking at a security process efficiency, but a support process," DuChateau explains. "Now we have dedicated IT teams that help us from an infrastructure standpoint—they don't have to remember which system they are working on, because we're all working on one system across the enterprise. We're in a virtualized server environment so everyone is seeing and touching the same thing, and just from a staffing standpoint, we have people who can bounce between multiple campuses and they are not having to relearn everything."</p><p>Comparing the response to a standard door alarm before and after the technology upgrade shows the efficiency of the new system, DuChateau points out. When multiple security systems were in place, a door alarm would be automatically logged into a database and a patrol officer would be dispatched to where the alarm went off. Employees in the command center would open up an Excel spreadsheet and document the date, time, and location of the alarm and how it was resolved. At the same time, the responding officer would record the same information into his or her own response log.</p><p>"We'd have this incident documented in five or six places," DuChateau notes. "In our traditional mindset a few years ago, we just kept doing it because it was the process. None of the documentation was coalesced into a common system, it was just out there."</p><p>After the AMAG upgrade, the process has become more streamlined. The access control system will register the door alarm and immediately display a notification on video monitors in the command center. The situation can often be resolved just by looking at the video of what is going on, and the system allows employees to document the alarm in the system itself. </p><p>"It's pretty hands-off, we put a heavy lift into the programming," DuChateau says. "We went from logging 1,400 different entries on a shift down to 200 just by taking a step back. When you're saving 800 steps from a shift, that equates to time, so we gained about six hours out of an eight-hour shift by freeing someone up from documenting everything." ​</p><h4>WATCHFUL AND WELCOMING</h4><p>Northwestern Mutual's corporate security team is blended, with about 40 in-house employees and another 40 contracted officers. The organization switched from another contract security provider to G4S at the end of 2016 due to its familiarity with the AMAG systems—AMAG is a subsidiary of G4S.</p><p>"That was a factor in identifying this relationship," DuChateau says. "We could have the benefit of G4S folks coming to us that have familiarity with their own products already, so we don't have to spend as much time as we normally would with someone coming in cold and having to train them on the solutions."</p><p>DuChateau points out that, despite the addition of the tower and commons to the campus, Northwestern Mutual did not need to bring on any additional in-house or contracted security personnel, thanks to the augmented technology.</p><p>"When you talk about opening a 1.1 million-squarefoot addition, you would think that it's a given that we'd need extra security people, but we didn't because we became more efficient," DuChateau says.</p><p>G4S officers have become a more integral part of Northwestern Mutual's security approach and are primarily in charge of the visitor management system, which is critical for the new facility—employees from all over the country flock to the Milwaukee campus every week for training. The increase in traffic required DuChateau to rethink the visitor registration process.</p><p>"We had five buildings that were all interconnected, but we had five separate lobbies, five separate ways to process visitors, five separate ways to get employees in and out, so we wanted to make some conscious decisions on where to direct people," DuChateau explains. "We just built this brand new beautiful tower and connecting commons and training space. Do we have to process visitors at every single building or can we direct them to the tower lobby? If we direct them to one main entry point, then we can deploy technology in these other lobbies and move resources where they're needed. We changed a little bit of behavior and moved some of the operations more towards a centralized location than doing everything everywhere."</p><p>AMAG's visitor management system allows guests to preregister, making it easy for officers to look up the guest and print a barcoded badge that permits visitors access to specified areas. The system also runs guests' names against a list of restricted visitors. DuChateau says that in the future the system will allow preregistered guests to print off a QR code that would produce a badge upon being scanned at the facility. "There are some cool things on the horizon as far as the efficiency standpoint goes," he says.</p><h4>ALL IN THE NUMBERS</h4><p>While DuChateau is glad to have a 21st century, enterprise-level security system in place, he says he is most looking forward to what the system can do for Northwestern Mutual in years to come. Already, data mining has made the security approach more efficient and intuitive.</p><p>"We have two cafeterias on our Milwaukee campus, so we can start gathering access control data and say at 9:30 a.m. here's a snapshot of the number of people on campus, give that to the restaurant team, and they can use it and plan to feed that many people for lunch that day," DuChateau says. "We want to use this data to say, 'okay, are we using our facilities how we had intended three years ago?' We start looking at singular systems, gathering data, and making that data actionable in a business sense. Data is data, but if you don't use it, what good is it for besides investigations?"</p><p>Preregistration data also helps the security team manage the flow of visitors each day. Employees can look at the guest database and estimate when and where large groups of visitors will arrive, and plan accordingly. "We get a couple more laptops, badge printers, and patrol people to help process visitors, versus having a bad customer experience and having 200 people lined up out the door just to get in to a training event that we're hosting," DuChateau explains. </p><p>That's just the tip of the data-mining iceberg, and the more Northwestern Mutual's security arm works with the rest of the organization, the more the data can be employed to the organization's benefit. "Our information resource management and cybersecurity folks look at it from a different perspective, and maybe our privacy people ask how the data is going to be used and what kind of data is gathered," DuChateau says. "Now that we're standardized on an enterprise-class solution, how can that data benefit the business? How can we slice and dice that data down the road? Maybe we can take snapshots of our environment across all of our facilities, not only in Wisconsin but in Arizona and New York—can we feed that information to our workforce planning people?"</p><p>DuChateau says he wants Northwestern Mutual's intelligent security control centers to take the heavy lift off of employees and use built-in analytics to proactively identify strange behavior, and instead use security personnel to respond to exceptions.</p><p>"For the longest time, our control centers had this big screen up with all card access activity in the environment, thousands and thousands of people badging in and out—all of this data is scrolling by and it's just noise," DuChateau says. "Why do we even care what these people are doing in real time? Let's care about the people who are badging into areas that they aren't supposed to be badging into, or someone who has a multifactored device and is putting in the wrong PIN code, and start dealing with the smarter security approach to a secure environment."</p><p>While the new technology and data augment Northwestern Mutual's security posture and reduce the workload on guard services, DuChateau says that does not mean technology will replace people. "Maybe we want to pull some people because we've deployed technology, but we will direct them to a different part of the operation that looks at metrics, or quality assurance, or all of these things that really build up those parts of the program, because we don't have to be so labor intensive on physical access control or checking IDs or things like that—we can look at resource management in a different lens."</p><p>For now, DuChateau says the security team is still getting used to the new facilities and platforms at Northwestern Mutual's Milwaukee campus and is learning to rely on the data the systems collect. But within a few years, he foresees a "phenomenal expansion" of leveraging the platforms to guide the team's efforts.</p><p>"We've really begun to scratch the surface on the potential of all of this technology," DuChateau says. "We're in a good spot because we did it early enough and we have people familiar enough with the technology. Now we can ask, okay, what else can we do and how else can we move the vision of our company forward?" ​</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465