Cybercrime

 

 

https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Book-Review---Credit-Card-Fraud.aspxBook Review: Credit Card FraudGP0|#91bd5d60-260d-42ec-a815-5fd358f1796d;L0|#091bd5d60-260d-42ec-a815-5fd358f1796d|Cybersecurity;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652018-07-01T04:00:00Z<p>​Rowman & Littlefield Publishers; rowman.com; 264 pages; $36.</p><p>Credit card fraud is a huge issue. It keeps everyone, from banks and merchants to customers and police departments, up at night. Attackers are savvy and think of ways to break new credit card protection mechanisms, often only a few hours after they are implemented.</p><p>While the problem will never go away, in <em>Preventing Credit Card Fraud: A Complete Guide for Everyone from Merchants to Consumers,</em> Jen Grondahl Lee and Gini Graham Scott have written a most valuable guide that can be used by everyone within the credit card lifecycle to better protect themselves. </p><p>The book is written for two different audiences and divided into corresponding sections: "Protecting Yourself as a Consumer or Client" and "Protecting Yourself as a Merchant or Service Provider." Each provides a lot of information and helpful tips readers can put into play to ensure they don't become victims of credit card fraud.</p><p>For customers, the authors describe "free trial" scams, where devious merchants offer a free trial, but with odious terms and conditions. Customers supply valuable credit card information, and by the time they know what has happened, they are often on the hook for hundreds of dollars of worthless products.</p><p>For merchants, there is guidance on knowing your customer to obviate credit card fraud. But the authors don't paint a pretty picture, in that when fraudsters are caught, they rarely face jail time. And even when they do, it's often for insignificantly short sentences. </p><p>The rate of credit card fraud is not slowing down. Small efforts can go a long way toward avoiding becoming a victim. For those looking to put in the effort, Preventing Credit Card Fraud is a helpful and valuable guide..</p><p><em>Reviewer: Ben Rothke, CISSP (Certified Information Systems Security Professional), PCI, QSA (Qualified Security Assessor), is a principal security consultant with Nettitude.</em></p>

Cybercrime

 

 

https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Artificial-Adversaries.aspx2018-06-01T04:00:00ZArtificial Adversaries
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Cyber-as-Statecraft.aspx2018-05-01T04:00:00ZCyber as Statecraft
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/The-Problem-with-Bots.aspx2018-04-01T04:00:00ZThe Problem with Bots
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Global-Cyber-Awareness.aspx2018-01-01T05:00:00ZGlobal Cyber Awareness
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Held-Hostage-.aspx2017-12-01T05:00:00ZHeld Hostage
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/An-Identity-Crisis.aspx2017-12-01T05:00:00ZAn Identity Crisis
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Cutting-Edge-Criminals.aspx2017-12-01T05:00:00ZCutting-Edge Criminals
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Driving-the-Business.aspx2017-10-01T04:00:00ZDriving the Business
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Klososky-Opines-on-the-Future-of-Technology.aspx2017-09-27T04:00:00ZKlososky Opines on the Future of Technology
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Hackers-Hit-Equifax,-Compromising-143-Million-Americans’-Data.aspx2017-09-08T04:00:00ZHackers Hit Equifax, Compromising 143 Million Americans’ Data
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Data-Breach-Trends.aspx2017-08-01T04:00:00ZData Breach Trends
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Book-Review---Data-Hiding.aspx2017-08-01T04:00:00ZBook Review: Data Hiding
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Vulnerability-Rediscovery-Occurs-At-More-Than-Twice-The-Previously-Reported-Rate.aspx2017-07-21T04:00:00ZVulnerability Rediscovery Occurs At More Than Twice The Previously Reported Rate
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Business-Theft-and-Fraud--Detection-and-Prevention.aspx2017-07-17T04:00:00ZBook Review - Business Theft and Fraud: Detection and Prevention
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Survey-Of-InfoSec-Professionals-Paints-A-Dark-Picture-Of-Cyber-Defenses.aspx2017-07-07T04:00:00ZSurvey Of InfoSec Professionals Paints A Dark Picture Of Cyber Defenses
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Ukraine-Among-Countries-Affected-by-Petya-Ransomware-Attack-.aspx2017-06-27T04:00:00ZUkraine Among Countries Affected by Petya Ransomware Attack
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Average-Cost-of-Data-Breach-Declines-Globally-First-Time.aspx2017-06-20T04:00:00ZAverage Cost of Data Breach Declines Globally for First Time
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/EU-Needs-Comprehensive-Strategy-To-Address-Cybersecurity-Risks,-Think-Tank-Finds.aspx2017-06-09T04:00:00ZEU Needs Comprehensive Strategy To Address Cybersecurity Risks, Think Tank Finds
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Most-Companies-Take-More-Than-A-Month-To-Detect-Cyberattackers.aspx2017-06-02T04:00:00ZMost Companies Take More Than A Month To Detect Cyberattackers
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Hacking-Culture.aspx2017-06-01T04:00:00ZHacking Culture

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https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Book-Review---Emergency-Planning-for-Nuclear-Power-Plants-.aspxBook Review: Emergency Planning for Nuclear Power Plants <p>​Published by Routledge; crcpress.com; 362 pages; $105.</p><p>Starting with a sound historical platform, <em>Emergency Planning for Nuclear Power Plants </em>prepares the reader to understand the complex nature and evolution of emergency preparedness requirements for nuclear power plants. The author focuses on the technical basis for nuclear emergency planning and provides the reader with a good understanding of issues and risks from a radiological dose perspective. He also leaves room to apply emergency management principles, such as fire and security, that also play a role in response planning. </p><p>The book explains how certain directions taken by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission have helped shape the industry abroad. A key example is a discussion on reactor consequence analysis and the probabilistic risk assessment that is used widely across the industry. The author's focus is on U.S. regulations, although one could argue that difference in regulation today across countries is not significant, thus increasing the relevance of the book to industry emergency managers around the world. </p><p>The discussion centers on emergency planning considerations that address the issues associated with two reactor types—pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors—that are prevalent in the United States. Some risks attributed to other reactor types are not fully addressed in the book.</p><p>By effectively deploying mitigation strategies developed since the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, the expected radiological dose from large-scale nuclear accidents can be significantly reduced. The author provides good explanations of all aspects of emergency planning. However, too much detail in some sections might confuse the reader. Still, this book is a must-read for all nuclear industry emergency planning managers.</p><p><em>Reviewer: Dan McArthur has more than 30 years of experience in the nuclear industry and now serves as senior strategist at Bruce Power, where he focuses on regulatory and government affairs pertaining to emergency management policy. He is a member of the Canadian Standards Association providing technical input and guidance on emergency preparedness requirements for nuclear power plants in Canada.</em></p>GP0|#21788f65-8908-49e8-9957-45375db8bd4f;L0|#021788f65-8908-49e8-9957-45375db8bd4f|National Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://adminsm.asisonline.org/Pages/Space-Jam.aspxSpace Jam<p>​Much of the western United States was put on notice earlier this year when the U.S. Air Force announced that it would be blocking GPS signals on its base south of Las Vegas, Nevada. The tactic—which occurred during an annual month-long military training exercise—could cause air traffic disruption and potentially require flight rerouting due to inconsistent GPS, the notice stated. While the Air Force would not confirm that the GPS disruption was a part of its yearly exercises, experts believe that the military is training its pilots to fly in conditions where GPS signals are inaccurate or nonexistent—a scenario that has become increasingly common.</p><p>Thirty-one satellites currently orbiting the earth transmit signals to civilian and military terrestrial receivers, essentially using time signals to run location-based devices and activities and syncing networks around the world. The satellites—called the GPS constellation—are owned by the United States and operated by the Air Force. Since 1978, the satellites have provided location, navigation, and timing capabilities to the military, and an unencrypted version became available for public use in the 1980s. Over the years, the signals from the GPS constellation have become critical for a variety of applications, including communications, precise time measurements, and critical infrastructure technologies—in addition to its military uses of navigation, target tracking, and missile guidance. </p><p>However, the signal—which is inherently weak—is susce​ptible to outside interference. Anything from space weather to malfunctioning machinery to malicious actors can cause problems with GPS, including blocking the signal—called jamming—and sending false signals, known as spoofing. Even small interferences can cause big headaches.<img src="/ASIS%20SM%20Callout%20Images/0518%20NS%20Chart.jpg" class="ms-rtePosition-2" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:466px;" /> </p><p>For example, a man who drove a company car purchased a GPS jammer to keep his boss from knowing his whereabouts, but when he passed near Newark airport in New Jersey, the jammer blocked signals from reaching the air traffic controller system. Although the sale and use of jammers is illegal in the United States, they can be purchased online for less than $50 and can successfully hide a vehicle's location.</p><p>In January 2016, a routine equipment switch caused a series of 13-microsecond timing errors in half of the GPS constellation satellites, which triggered about 12 hours of confusion for computers, networks, and timing devices around the world. </p><p>The U.S. government has referred to GPS as a single point of failure for critical infrastructure and, in 2004, called for the U.S. Department of Transportation to acquire a backup capability for GPS. However, an alternative has never come to fruition. </p><p>U.S. President Donald Trump reemphasized the need for redundancy by including a section in the 2018 National Defense Authorization Act that requires the U.S. Departments of Defense, Transportation, and Homeland Security to demonstrate a GPS backup capability within the next 18 months.</p><p>"We were concerned that the federal government was not doing all of the things it said it would do in order to protect GPS signals, which are being interfered with on a regular basis," says Dana Goward, the president of the Resilient Navigation and Timing Foundation (RNTF). He established the nonprofit in 2013 to protect, toughen, and augment GPS signals. "Since we started, over the last five years, GPS has been interfered with more and more," he notes.</p><p>Goward and other members of RNTF are also members of the National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Advisory Board, which has existed since the call for a GPS backup capability was issued in 2004. </p><p>It's hard to tell exactly how big an impact a widespread GPS outage would have on critical infrastructure sectors around the world, but Goward notes that glitches such as the January 2016 blip can foreshadow what systems might be affected. "The implementation and use of GPS signals is so widely spread for so many different things it was never intended to be used for that it's really impossible to outline all the bad things that would happen and the sequence in which they would occur," he says. "But there are some things we do know." </p><p>Say a terrorist plants a high-powered GPS jammer hidden in a suitcase in the middle of a city. Transportation will probably be the first system visibly affected, which could quickly impact an entire metropolitan area, Goward says. Traffic lights will become desynchronized and GPS-based apps will no longer function, creating distracted and dangerous driving conditions. Airplanes and other forms of mass transportation will have to slow down or alter routes to stay in contact with people who can keep them on course. Package delivery routes as well as land, sea, and air-based supply chain operations will be disrupted. "All forms of transportation will be forced to carry less capacity in the area," Goward notes.</p><p>Countless systems that rely on GPS's perfectly synchronized timing—including data networks, financial activities, the electric grid, and other utilities—will slowly become out of sync, causing system failures. </p><p>"When the networks start to fall apart, it's hard to tell how much of a cascading failure you're going to see," Goward notes. "Networks depend on each other. It's really such a vast and hyper complex system, the structures of which are not known and may not be knowable."</p><p>Preventing GPS glitches is a multifaceted challenge. The GPS satellites themselves are fairly resilient—they are replaced on a rotating basis depending on their estimated operational life. Still, mechanical glitches like the one that caused the January 2016 blip are possible. The signals transmitted from the satellites are even weaker than cosmic background noise, and Goward notes that even upgraded equipment won't substantially change the strength.</p><p>"The basic problem is fundamental physics," Goward says. "Satellites are 12,500 miles up in space and powered by solar panels and transmitting all the time—unlike other satellites that can store up their solar power, GPS satellites have to transmit all the time. They will always be really weak and easy to interfere with."</p><p>An inherent area of weakness is the equipment used to receive the GPS signal sent by the satellites—anything from cell phones to networks to military ground stations that encrypt the signal.</p><p>"Most GPS receivers in use right now are very vulnerable to jamming and spoofing," Goward notes. "The technology in terms of antennas and software is available to make them much less susceptible to jamming and spoofing, but it costs a little extra and users don't feel motivated to incorporate anti-jamming and spoofing technology into their receivers and systems, even when they involve and support critical infrastructure like phone and IT networks."</p><p>RNTF is working with the government to establish guidance or best practices to improve GPS receiver security.While a fix is relatively simple, Goward says he doubts most companies will make the upgrade unless they are told to do so or they experience a GPS-induced crisis. "We think that for critical infrastructure applications there's a government role there to advocate for, encourage, and perhaps require users to have the latest anti-jamming and spoofing technology."</p><p>Military-level encrypted GPS signals aren't exempt from jamming or spoofing, either. While the use of a secured ground system to control the broadcast of an encrypted signal, along with military-grade receivers, provides an inherent level of protection, it's not foolproof—and it only works when it's used properly.</p><p>"Because of the encryption, that makes military receivers as a practical matter more difficult to use, so we had seen any number of photographs of military folks in the field with GPS receivers they bought at Walmart strapped to their arms and using them instead of military receivers," Goward notes. Encrypted equipment tends to be stored under lock and key—and is usually unwieldy—making it more cumbersome to use. </p><p>It's suspected that the infamous straying of a U.S. naval ship into Iranian waters in 2016 was a result of the sailors using unencrypted receivers that allowed Iran to spoof the signal and direct them into the country's territory. And headlines were made when the movements of U.S. military personnel at several overseas bases could be tracked via a GPS-based fitness app—no jamming or spoofing required.  </p><p>The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is in the middle of upgrading the military ground systems and replacing the current GPS constellation—which is near the end of its intended operational life—but the efforts have faced a series of setbacks. The new generation of satellites, called GPS III, are expected to provide a stronger signal that is more resistant to spoofing and jamming and will permit interoperability with other global navigation systems. But, according to the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), the acquisition and timeline of deploying the new satellites has run into several roadblocks, delaying the launch of the new equipment. </p><p>For example, the first GPS III satellite built, which is slated to become operational in 2019, includes energy storage devices that had not been appropriately tested by the subcontractor. When the Air Force discovered the failure to test the equipment, it made the subcontractor remove the devices from the second and third satellites currently being built, but "decided to accept the first satellite and launch it 'as is' with the questionable capacitors installed," the GAO reports. 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